Thursday, January 30, 2020
Subhash Chandra Bose Essay Subhash Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 at Cuttack, in Orissa. He was the sixth son of Janakinath and Prabhavati Bose. Subhash was an excellent student and after school joined the Presidency College, Calcutta, where he studied philosophy, a subject he was interest in. As a young boy Subhash felt neglected among his 8 siblings. At his English school he suffered under the discrimination faced by Indians which made him even sadder. He wanted to work for the poor but his father, had other ideas. He sent Subhash to England to appear for the Indian Civil Service. In July 1920, barely eight months later Subhash Chandra Bose appeared in the Civil Service Examination and passed it with distinction. But he didnt want to be a member of the bureaucracy and resigned from the service and returned to India. Back home, he participated in the freedom movement along with Deshbandhu C. R. Das. He was thrown into jail but that only made him more determined. Subhash joined the congress and rose to its Presidentship in 1938 a post he held for 2 years. In 1939, when the Second World War started Gandhiji and other leaders were against doing anything anti-Britain. But Subhash thought differently. He knew, for instance, that the fall of the Roman Empire had led to the freedom of its colonies. He decided to seek foreign help for his cause of freeing India. He was arrested and kept in his house under detention. On January 17, 1941, while everyone was asleep, Bose slipped out of his house into a waiting car. Disguised as a Muslim religious teacher, Bose managed to reach Peshawar two days later. Bose went to Italy, Germany and even Russia to seek help but without much use. Subash decided to organize Indians on his own. He landed in Singapore and grouped Indians there into the Indian National Army or the Azad Hind Fauj and declared himself the temporary leader of the free Indian government. Japan, Germany and Italy recognizied Subhashs government and the whole of India rejoiced. The INA marched to Andaman and Nicobar islands, liberating and renaming them as Shaheed and Swaraj islands. On March 18, 1944, it crossed the Burmese border and reached Manipur where free Indias banner was raised with the shouts of Jai Hind and Netaji Zindabad. But heavy rain prevented any further movement and the units had to fall back. Even then Netaji was determined. On August 17, 1945, he issued a Special Order to the INA which said that Delhi is still our goal. He then wanted to go to Russia to seek Soviet help to fight the British. But the ill-fated plane in which he was flying, crashed in Taipei on August 18, 1945, resulting in his death. Some people believe that Subhash Chandra Bose didnt die, that he faked his own crash to escape the British who wanted to arrest him. There were even reports of Bose living in Russia and other foreign countries, even some claims of having seen him as a sadhu, but none were ever proved and today his death in the plane crash is the accepted version.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Biography of William Edward Burghardt DuBois William Edward Burghardt DuBois, to his admirers, was by spirited devotion and scholarly dedication, an attacker of injustice and a defender of freedom. A harbinger of Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism, he died in self-imposed exile in his home away from home with his ancestors of a glorious pastÃ¢â¬âAfrica. Labeled as a "radical," he was ignored by those who hoped that his massive contributions would be buried along side of him. But, as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote, "history cannot ignore W.E.B. DuBois because history has to reflect truth and Dr. DuBois was a tireless explorer and a gifted discoverer of social truths. His singular greatness lay in his quest for truth about his own people. There were very few scholars who concerned themselves with honest study of the black man and he sought to fill this immense void. The degree to which he succeeded disclosed the great dimensions of the man." His Formative Years W.E.B. DuBois was born on February 23, 1868 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. At that time Great Barrington had perhaps 25, but not more than 50, Black people out of a population of about 5,000. Consequently, there were little signs of overt racism there. Nevertheless, its venom was distributed through a constant barrage of suggestive innuendoes and vindictive attitudes of its residents. This mutated the personality of young William from good natured and outgoing to sullen and withdrawn. This was later reinforced and strengthened by inner withdrawals in the face of real discriminations. His demeanor of introspection haunted him throughout his life. While in high school DuBois showed a keen concern for the development of his race. At age fifteen he became the local correspondent for the New York Globe. And in this position he conceived it his duty to push his race forward by lectures and editorials reflecting upon the need of Black people to politicized themselves. DuBois was naturally gifted intellectually and took pleasurable pride in surpassing his fellow students in academic and other pursuits. Upon graduation from high school, he, like many other New England students of his caliber, desired to attend Harvard. However, he lacked the financial resources to go to that institution. But with the aid of friends and family, and a scholarship he received to Fisk College (now University), he eagerly headed to Nashville, Tennessee to further his education. This was DuBois' first trip south. And in those three years at Fisk (1885Ã¢â¬â1888) his knowledge of the race problem became more definite.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Constitutional Law pertains to the account of fundamental laws of nation-states and other political associations. Thus, constitutions refer to the foundation and structure for government and could limit or characterize the power and system of political institutions to carry out new laws and policies (Chemerinsky, 2003). The constitution sets the boundaries of new laws, thus, the entire state is subjected to the constitution. The Fourteenth amendment of the United States which covers citizenship and civil rights is where the Fourth Amendment sprouted from. In recognition of equality among citizens discarding race, ethnicity and religion, the fourth amendment was made to protect the rights of the citizens and those are the right to due process and to privacy and security of his properties. This fourth amendment was created in 1914 was at the federal level and was only adapted by all states of America. The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution (Search and Seizure) includes the Exclusionary Rule which protects citizens of the United States from illegal searches of their private properties (Sundberg). Any unwarranted intrusions made by the police force to the privacy of an individual are prohibited by law. For a search to be valid the warrant to search should be able to describe in detail the items to be searched, the location and facilities to be confiscated (Roberts, 2007). This lets the people enjoy their right to feel secure of their houses, documents, papers and other properties that are considered private. The rule also gives the citizen a right to due process as the police force cannot just confiscate and search them without the needed papers. Furthermore, this law also abides by the philosophy of deontology wherein the action is judged to be right or wrong if the root of the action itself is based upon the duty and obligation of a person (Darwall, 12). Thus, the means upon which evidence is acquired is more important than the value of the evidence gathered. Since this rule encompass criminal cases only, even if the police found a gun or any evidence that points out that the man who owns the property upon which the evidence was found is indeed the perpetrator, this evidence will be considered invalid in court and will not make any impact on the courts decision given that the police did not have the warrant to search the individuals property. In addition to that, a search that is made in areas that is not specified by the warrant is not allowed even if evidences are found within the parameters of the facility that was searched. The positive side of this law is that it protects the rights of every citizen against illegal searches by the police, thus securing their privacy. This also discourages illegal searches and bounds the police to their duty by following the law. However, the downside of this rule is that if evidence is found in illegally searched areas, even if it can very well summarize the outcome of the case will be put to waste for the simple reason that there was no warrant of arrest or it was not indicated in the warrant that such place is included in the search. The absence of that piece of paper means a lot in the proceedings, and such important evidences are discarded. For example, a weapon that is found in the car of a murderer with his finger print on it would still be useless in court since it was searched illegally. Which is more important then, the evidence or how the evidence was obtained? Perhaps for us to fully assess the situation it is a need for us to analyze a certain scenario. For the purpose of further understanding the gravity of the situation let us assume that a bomb explosion took place in a residential neighborhood rendering 10 people killed and 20 other wounded. Right after the explosion operatives responded in just 3 minutes given that the place is in close proximity to the police station. The initial assumption was for it to be a terroristic act. Since the neighborhood was closely knit almost everyone knew something about everybody. They denied that such ruthless murderer could be one of their residents but a policeman guided by his instinct was convinced that a prominent resident of the neighborhood did the bombing. The resident was bound to leave the place the day after but since it was a Sunday, the court was close and cannot issue a warrant plus the fact that they cannot link him to the bomb explosion. The policemen decided to search the house of the resident without the warrant and found evidence. Materials of making a bomb were found at his residence. They arrested him but after years the case was dismissed because of the exclusion rule. First and foremost, there was no warrant and second they filed motion to suppress the evidence. The law supports the defendants claim and sets him free. This issue is a philosophical debate of the deontological and consequentialist groups (Philip, 2002). Deontological perspective would argue that the fault was in the part of the officials since they did not do their duty. To act from duty is to do the right thing and it is more important that catching the perpetrator before he leaves the town. The obedience of duty is placed in higher value as the result of their act. Even if they found the evidence and arrested the man responsible for the bombing that killed 10 people, it is still not valid. They did not abide to their duty. Ã¢â¬Å"A human action is morally good if and only if it is done from dutyÃ¢â¬ (Kant, 397Ã¢â¬â399). Consequential or Utilitarianism would say that the act of searching without a warrant is the right thing to do since they found who did the bombing. The measures upon which the police undertook to get to the perpetrator is not important as long as the greater good for the most number of people was realized, and that is justice. It does not matter if there is no warrant and the police invaded the house of a private citizen as long as the truth was discovered and the person responsible was caught. The evidence was clear, therefore is compensates for the policemanÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to adhere to the Fourth Amendment. Both philosophies have their reasons that are enough to justify their claims, but I believe that we should keep the Fourth Amendment as it is. It is in our law that we should respect the privacy and rights of a citizen. In the scenario above the policemen caught the perpetrator because they found evidence in his household. The search was illegal but either way, they got what they were looking for. However, what if they saw nothing, would it not be invasion of privacy on grounds as weak as instinct? Then the basic right to privacy and security of the citizen would have been violated. There is no need to change the exclusionary rule, policemen should abide by their duty and help to protect the rights of the people. We cannot compromise the basic rights of an individual for public safety. Though it is the duty of the police to go after the perpetrator and give justice to the crimes he has committed, he also has rights whether he is a citizen of the United States or not. According to the fourth amendment the exclusionary rule covers even illegal aliens. We cannot strip a person with his rights even if the need arises for the simple reason that it is adherence to our duty that defines who we are. If the exclusionary rule is to be abolished then, warrantless arrests and rampant would be more prevalent in our nation. Even now that the rule takes effect there are still violations. Rampant searches especially to our brothers with colors are evident in our nation. Wire tapping is also an issue about the security of communication lines especially for public officials. The Bush administration wanted to allow the use of evidences that were illegally seized by the police given that it was in good faith and is useful in finding the person who is responsible for the crime. Plus they want to allow federal agents to arrest persons without a warrant of arrest regardless of nationality as long as it is done with the most honest intentions. Sure this can solves some crimes such as the scenario given above, but I want to point out that this only allows further suppression of a persons liberty. When the use of illegally searched evidences is allowed in court, this would only encourage the policeman to search anyone and any house or establishment that they want to search and if they find nothing, the person concerned canÃ¢â¬â¢t go after the policemen and ask for damages. They will be protected by law to barge into the homes of countless citizens and invade their privacy. If we take action just because we believe that it is for the best even if it is not in our duty, we have no guarantee that that action can be fruitful. It canÃ¢â¬â¢t be denied that there is a need to reduce crime in our nation and solve those that are still looking for justice, but giving justice for the price of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s liberty is a cost thatÃ¢â¬â¢s too high for a nation who values autonomy of its citizens. The exclusionary rule has set standards for our policemen for them to abide too such that their level of professionalism and adherence to their duty is further raised higher. They are bounded by law to protect the citizens of this nation and they should do so while safeguarding the basic rights of every individual. Thus, there is a need for the exclusionary rule to uphold the liberty of this nation. Reference http://www.robertslaw.org/4thamend.htm
Sunday, January 5, 2020
The 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s were plagued by racial tensions between colored Americans and white Americans. Colored Americans were denied equal access to education, jobs, and voting. After decades of oppression, the colored Americans felt worn out, and had already been through enough, and were finally ready to fight for change. Although the civil rights movement was supported mostly by the colored Americans, many white Americans were also ready for change. The interpretation of the civil rights era was modeled by the Brown vs. Board of education case, the imperative speech by John F. Kennedy, and the student non-violent coordinating committee proposal. In June 1892, the Plessy v. Ferguson case established the Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ frame for America and called it constitutional. The entire case occurred because Plessy was sitting on the Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ side of the train and despite his light complexion, was still sent to jail. However, equality came to a poorly limited extent. Some never felt equal at all. Decades later, in 1954, the Brown v. Board of education case dealt with an African American family asking for justice in regards to their daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s education. The Brown family, like many others, felt as though white children were seen as more deserving, and more capable, and therefore were receiving a better education than the colored children. In the Ã¢â¬Å"Brown v. Board of Education of TopekaÃ¢â¬ (Unger 262) case, Chief justice Warren, C.J challenged others and asked if the segregation ofShow MoreRelatedEssay On Overcoming Us History881 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesridiculed and beat both physically and menta lly for no reason what so ever. Segregation did not allow African Americans to drink from certain fountains, eat in specific diners, and to live where they wanted. If you werenÃ¢â¬â¢t white and you lived in the south you lived in constant fear and had limited choices. Many werenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to move north because they simply couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford it. African Americans had to be very cautious on what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re doing no matter the situation. For example Emmett Till who was a youngRead MoreRalph EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢S Short Story Ã¢â¬Å"Battle Royal,Ã¢â¬ Is Set In The1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬ is set in the deep south during the late 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s era. Racial tension in the south has always been exorbitantly high. In the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s keeping segregation is still a priority for half the population in the southern states, slavery may be abolished but the physical act of welcoming African-Americans as Ã¢â¬Å"AmericansÃ¢â¬ is far from the minds of many Americans. EllisonÃ ¢â¬â¢s short story accentuates this idea of racial tension and social standards, between the elites of the town and the very intelligent former highRead MoreThe Chicago Race Riots Of 19191291 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmillion African-Americans from the rural south into the urban north. Of those 6 million African-Americans traveling to the north 500,000 of them went to Chicago s South Side. The African-American population thought they were going to a better situation by escaping the apartheid practices of Jim Crow. However they were taken advantage of and seen as new competition to the northern white population. Nine years later during the summer of 1919, two years after World War I ended, the American society sufferedRead More`` Dreams `` By Langston Hughes Essay1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesone would argue that all humans have equal rights and freedom now a days. Yet there is still the unequal treatment between whites and blacks, as a country America has emerged from worse standings be fore with the aid of great visionaries. In the era of the Harlem Renaissance poets used art as a voice of reason. Granted, there were many poets who impacted the movement against racial inequality, Langston Hughes turned the pages with inspiring work. Whereas in Langston Hughes poem Dreams encouragesRead More The Civil Rights Movement in 1955 Essay1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Civil Rights Movement refers to the political, social, and economical struggle of African Americans to gain full citizenship and racial equality. Although African Americans began to fight for equal rights as early as during the days of slavery, the quest for equality continues today. Historians generally agree that Civil Rights Movement began with the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 and ended with the passing of the Voting Rights Act in 1965. Despite the 14th and 15th constitutional amendmentsRead MoreAnalysis Of Hughes s Poem Theme For English B 818 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesco-exist as equals. Even though IndividualÃ¢â¬â¢s emerge from different backgrounds, they are all brought together under one identity, as American. African-Americans, however, had to fight to be an assimilated part of American society, and claim for themselves the bonds that unite Americans one to another. In Ã¢â¬Å"Theme for English BÃ¢â¬ , Hughes depicts the similarities between himself, the black student, and his Professor, In order to assert that Individuals can emerge from different backgrounds, however, theyRead MoreHow Racial Segregation Affects Characters in The Help by Kathryn Stockett 1160 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Racial segregation is the practice of isolating a group of people based on their race, class or ethnic group. This practice provides the means of maintaining the economic advantages and superior social status of the politicall y dominant group, and was primarily employed by white populations to maintain their dominance over African- Americans (Britannica). Racial segregation was implemented or at least encouraged, and as a result has negatively affected the lives of African-Americans as a wholeRead MoreBrown Vs. Board Of Education1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFerguson (1896). The Plessy vs. Ferguson court case had a profound affect on the social interaction of racial groups in the late 19th to early 20th century causing tension between the two most prominent races within the United States, the Caucasians and the African Americans, which included Hispanics and other non-white citizens. The Supreme Court Case Brown vs. Board of Education eradicated legal racial discrimination given to the state government by the implementation of Jim Crow Law in schools andRead MoreSegregation It s Not Just A White And Black Issue Essay723 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesJordan Reuille-Dupont Coons Honors Language Arts 30 August 2016 SegregationÃ¢â¬ ¦ It s Not Just a White and Black Issue Racial tension in the United States is a growing concern. A big challenge is raising awareness about racial segregation effects on the wider community. In order to ease the pressure and begin repairing race relations the paranoid style of American policing and the segregation of American citizens should be addressed as a primary cause. Along with undermining the legitimacy of officersRead MoreRacial Discrimination : The United States1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Racial discrimination has become a hot issue in the United States. Protests against the inequality of the court system and the young lives of black youths has sparked a racial divide. This problem has been occurring even before the establishment of this century. Racial tensions between blacks and whites goes far back to when slavery was still legal. African men, women, and children arrived to the free lands only to work their way out of slavery early on. Until the slave system became more strict