Saturday, August 31, 2019
According to the article, Health insurer stocks slip over possible Medicare Advantage payment cuts, after a bad week at the stocks it may lead to Medicare Advantage Payment cuts in 2014. That could lead to reduced coverage or fewer buying plans for persons 65 years and older, the disabled and people who have end-stage renal disease. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services said after markets closed Ã¢â¬Å"costs per person for Medicare Advantage plans to fall more than 2 percent in 2014, a bigger drop than many analysts who cover the industry anticipatedÃ¢â¬ (Associated Press, 2013). Medicare Advantage plans could see payment reductions topping 5 percent, considering they are also facing cuts from the health care reform and from steep federal budget cuts known as sequestration that are slated to start in March (Associated Press, 2013). Medicare Advantage plans are a key source of growth for insurers. It allows Medicare to offer basic coverage topped with vision or dental coverage, or offer premiums lower than standard Medicare Rates (Associated Press, 2013). The Advantage plans help cuts costs and negotiate reimbursement with providers to help keep costs down. A Medicare Advantage Plan is a type of Medicare health plan offered by a private company that contracts with Medicare to provide the citizen with all their Part A and Part B benefits. Medicare Advantage Plans include Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Private Fee-for-Service Plans, Special Needs Plans, and Medicare Medical Savings Account Plans. If enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Plan, Medicare services are covered through the plan and arenÃ¢â¬â¢t paid for under Original Medicare (Medicare.gov, n.d.). Under each plan there are different coverages. For example under a PPO you pay less for use of doctors, hospitals, and other health care providers that belong in your planÃ¢â¬â¢s network. If you choose to go elsewhere youÃ¢â¬â¢ll pay a larger premium. With an HMO, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t get your health care from any doctor, other health care provider or hospital. You must get your care and services from providers in that network (Medicare.gov, n.d.). Per Medicare News Watch, the annual estimated out-of-pocket costs for Medicare Advantage Plan members in 2013, including applicable copayments, deductibles, and premiums will vary from state to state. This website ranks all plans within the state and gives you an average on how much youÃ¢â¬â¢ll play per plan whether your health is Ã¢â¬Å"good, fair or poorÃ¢â¬ . For Massachusetts, a citizen can pay anywhere from $727-6712 on average per year depending on their health status. In the West Palm Beach area of Florida, it will costs between $106-4178 a year (Hmos4seniors.com, 2013). Considering a good majority of these patients donÃ¢â¬â¢t have much expendable income itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to think that these prices may increase and that there will be fewer options as well. I personally know elderly and disabled on these types of plans and they have expressed that any increases will be a hardship on all of them. The health status is defined per the chart below (Hmos4seniors.com, 2013): Health Status: GOOD Requiring occ. routine care| Health Status: FAIR Requiring episodic care for non-chronic conditions| Health Status: POOR Requiring chronic disease care and management| Low annual utilization- 4 Doctor office visits (in-network) Ã¢â¬â 1 Urgent care visit (out-of-area) Ã¢â¬â 0 Inpatient admissions Ã¢â¬â 0 Home health visits Ã¢â¬â 6 Prescriptions (30 day supply) Ã¢â¬â 1 Vision, hearing exams Ã¢â¬â 1 Dental prevention visit| Moderate annual utilization- 12 Doctor office visits (in-network) Ã¢â¬â 1 Emergency room visit Ã¢â¬â 1 Inpatient admission (5 days) Ã¢â¬â 4 Home health visits Ã¢â¬â 24 Prescriptions (2 per month) Ã¢â¬â 1 Vision, hearing exam Ã¢â¬â 1 Dental prevention visit| High annual utilization- 24 Doctor office visits (in-network) Ã¢â¬â 2 Emergency room visits Ã¢â¬â 3 Inpatient admissions (15 days) Ã¢â¬â 12 Home health visits Ã¢â¬â 72 Prescriptions (6 per month) Ã¢â¬â 1 Vision, hearing exam Ã¢â¬â 1 Dental prevention visit| References Hmos4seniors.com (2013). MedicareNewsWatch.com Ã¢â¬â Medicare Advantage Plan Cost Comparisons in Major Cities throughout the United States. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.hmos4seniors.com/costcomparisons.html [Accessed: 25 Feb 2013]. Medicare.gov (n.d.). Medicare Advantage Plans | Medicare.gov. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.medicare.gov/sign-up-change-plans/medicare-health-plans/medicare-advantage-plans/medicare-advantage-plans.html [Accessed: 25 Feb 2013]. Associated Press (2013). Health insurer stocks slip over possible Medicare Advantage payment cuts. The Washington Post, 19th February.
Friday, August 30, 2019
We had our induction to the fitness training by doing a fitness test which tested our fitness before we started our fitness program to see where we were at tenets wise and for the test I did it in 19. 30 minutes which wasn't that good at the time. So we started the program and firstly in our group we started doing upper body work which was fine, it did get tough in some of the exercises we did mainly because we tried to do much but luckily we didn't get any injuries so we carried on with it and with that I noticed improvements in my upper body strength within that period of two weeks.Also was working at that time so I would have gone In the gym more times but I could due to that but also because of where I work and the apartment I work In, you're having to constantly take out cages and pallets, the cages can weigh up to keg and the pallets can weigh to keg and above and that also helped as well with Improving my body strength and fitness as well so that also helped. The strengths of this was that my upper body strength has improved and that I am able to do the same exercises quicker. And that I have got a better muscle definition now to my arms and shoulders now.The weaknesses of this was that I wasn't able to come in any more due to engagements with work and also course work and rugby training. Also I was getting very fatigued with my upper body and I was getting the occasional strain which affected my performance at work and college. Improvements and changes to the fitness program: the improvements that I would make to the training program would be that I would Increase the frequency of the exercises such as do It more times a week If the time Is available to do so and that I would also add In more exercises to do to get the full benefit of the training to Improve the upper body strength.Overall I would add In more Interval training and probably also swimming as it helps your whole body. Week 3 and 4 we were doing lower body and leg training with this I didn' t notice much difference to my lower body strength. In my opinion the lower body exercises were harder to do than the upper body exercises because you couldn't fit in much variety to it so you were having to mainly do the same exercise over and over but overall it wasn't too bad and we got used to it over time and I noticed minor improvements overall such as better definition and strength overall.But the one thing I did notice was that I was constantly having to have help at work with pulling the cages out of the ware house u to leg fatigue and also during the leg exercises I kept on straining my groin and once I strained hamstring In my right leg. The strengths of doing this was that I got a minor Improvement In leg strength and also better leg tone. The weaknesses of this was that I was constantly straining my groin whilst doing the leg exercises which was very annoying and that I wish I got more out of this.Also that I was having to have to leg fatigue and also straining my groin . Improvements and changes to the training program: the way I would make changes to the lower body training would be that I loud add more variety and I would do more exercises because when I was doing the program I was doing the same exercises over and over and it got kind of boring, so I would add in other exercises such as squat thrusts and also I would add in sit up's.Week 5 and 6 we were doing cardiac vascular fitness and of which I thought I got quite a lot out of it fitness wise and I noticed difference within my cardiac vascular fitness whilst doing any kind of fitness. With improving my cardiovascular fitness there is a lot of variety which makes it not boring because you're constantly doing different activities which makes it interesting and doesn't make you lose focus as easily And plus you can do fitness like farther and interval training on a public field which is easy enough.What I would change: well I wouldn't change much to the fitness program itself but I would try t o space it out more evenly and not put it all in so closely and I would also do more training the next time I was going to do the fitness program which would improve my overall fitness a lot more. But the one thing I do lack a lot of is stamina, say that you are physically fit but you get out of breath quickly but you're till able to carry one though.The strengths of the fitness program was that over the two weeks my fitness did improve quite a lot which means that I was able to keep up with my rugby colleagues whilst at training doing touch rugby and other activities. The weaknesses of this program was that I didn't do enough fitness during the week outside of college so I didn't get the maximum out of it but if I had done fitness outside of college I would have become a lot fitter and would have been able to do a lot more fitness wise but I did get a lot fitter from the fitness program.The end of the tenets program, after the 6 weeks of training upper body, lower body and cardiova scular fitness training I have found noticeable differences/improvements in all areas that I trained. Since starting the fitness program I was back into rugby training and I have started playing again which is all good and I think if it wasn't for the six week training program I think I wouldn't have been able to cope with the needs of rugby. At the end of the six week training program we had a fitness test which was the same as the one we did at the start of the test, when I first did the testI did it in 19 minutes 30 seconds and when I did it the second time at the end of the fitness program I finished it in 16 minutes 30 seconds which is a huge difference than when the first time I did it which shows that my overall fitness and strength has improved which is a good thing because that's what I set out to achieve which is a good thing. Also whilst doing the fitness program I have been taken off one of my inhalers for my asthma which is very good which means that my asthma is going and also once it all goes I should have a better chance to get into other public services ouch as the navy.Targets for the future: my targets are that I would go swimming, even though I'm not the best of swimmers I can improve and with swimming its improves your whole body muscular wise and improves your fitness a lot and as I got approached by Cleveland second team players saying that I should play for them at the beginning of the new season and they said I probably would be playing at blindside flanker for them and I Just think that's brilliant but I would have to get lot fitter to do so. Also I will be planning to start boxing training again to get myI know the owner he would probably make me exercise like a dog and when I have spare time during the week or preferably in the morning I would possibly go on runs and set a benchmark time and each week I would try and improve it every week then getting onto a certain time. Http://www. Swimming. Org/swimsuit/why-swimming-needs- to-be- part-of-your-lifestyle/ Conclusion: In this piece of work I have evaluated my performance in the six week training programming and have included my strengths and weaknesses and also I have talked about before and after the training program and what's happened since then.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Consumer Expenditure - Assignment Example The most affected continent is Europe. For instance in Spain and Greece consumers have turned into investing instead of expenditure. The harsh economic conditions have made it unpredictable to spend a lot of money. This has made selling and manufacturing companies go bankrupt. In an argument by Blythe the economic conditions witnessed in Europe may be witnessed in other nations if the consumer population is not advised to spend more (56). However, the consumer population argues that the limited resources they have does not allow them to spend most of it in buying secondary goods. This scenario has forced the selling and manufacturing companies reconsider how to lure more consumers to purchase their products. This paper will focus on how consumers make decisions concerning the expenditure. Additionally, it will give an insight on how the rational consumer budgets their limited resources. It will also focus on how the selling and manufacturing companies strategize to increase the numbe r of sales of their products. The decision making process on expenditure among the consumers depend on several factors. One of the most significant factors is the income levels of the consumer. It is an obvious assumption to say that low income earners are the least spenders. With an increase of employees in this bracket the cutting cost on expenditure will continue to rise. Low income earners shift their focus first on necessary needs like paying rent providing food to their families and investing in education. Considering these priorities, it is evident that the money spend to purchase the other products is very limited. According to an argument by Barro saving also denies the consumers a significant amount of money to spend on other goods (106). It is the same scenario with high income earners. This bracket focuses more on investing and securing their financial future. With the global economy under numerous uncertainties, saving provides the most logical way to secure ones financ ial future. Apart from the income statements of consumers, the price of households goods determining the decision making on expenditure. Noel argues that a perspective on the market 2 years back from now, it is estimated that the price of general commodities has risen by an average of 50% (93). The basic needs like food and clothing have also been affected. This in turn means that, the consumer population will tend to cut cost on other products in order to have enough resources to acquire the basic goods they need. The uncertain financial and economic future has also made it difficult on consumers to spend more resources. Rational consumers on the other hand use all the means possible to maximize their resources and fulfill all their needs. Rational consumers also face the difficulty of planning expenditure on their very minimal wages and resources. To optimize this, this bracket of consumers cut expenditure cot on everything expect for the basic human needs. However, they tend to a lso spend very minimal on the basic needs. According to Blythe rational consumers greatly consider the future of their financial positions. In this way they are categorized as the least spending consumers (132). However, analysts argue that rational consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ decision of saving might at the end cost their financial security. According to Noel saving without spending on investing makes no difference from a person who spends money
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Interview with an adolescent - Case Study Example She made sure that I went to church regularly and she taught me never to say lies. As for my father he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care about anything like that. Puberty has not been too easy. I get quite annoyed that I do not have proper parents to take care of things because my grandparents are old and yet I have to depend a lot on them and it is very stressful. The interview with MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s dad was scheduled for another day. I asked Michael to arrange to meet with his dad at the same pond because it was quiet and peaceful here. Michael had telephoned his father and he arranged to meet us there on Saturday by 11:00 in the morning. From this interview I learned to show restraint in dealing with a young child. I also learned to be patient, understanding and the polite and show a lot of care. Listening to MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s story I empathized with him because I could understand the way he felt about his parents. This project gave me a lot of interest and kindled my curiosity. It also helped me to gain experience in engaging in a case history interview. This experience has encouraged me to shed some of my own inhibitions and impatience. The theory part of the project has helped me to gain new knowledge as well as improve my analytical and problem solving skills. MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s story made me realize how different parents, dealt differently with their children. In MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s case he had parents who were totally different not only in their outlook in life, but also in dealing with their son Michael. Michael seemed to love his mother with all his heart because she had been a kind, loving and understanding mother. But in the case of MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s dad he seemed to be aloof and did not seem to like him much because Michael had been a victim where he was concerned. Since MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother had passed away when he was very young, the parenting style of the father could be taken into consideration. MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s father was very strict
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Finance For Managers - Assignment Example The management of any firm is faced with the task of dealing not only with the short term challenges faced by the business, but they must also have a long term vision for the company. Each company has its own internal advantages called Strengths that enable it to do better than some others in the industry. Likewise, each company also has its own internal deficiencies called Weaknesses that prevent it from making full use of its resources and abilities. Like it or not, all firms operating within a particular industry are similarly faced with uniform challenges from the external environment like the legal, social, economic and technological changes that may emerge as Opportunities for the industry if they give it an advantage, or Threats for an industry if they challenge its well being and continuity in the business environment. Jools Furniture Industries Ltd. likewise has its own set of strengths and weaknesses, and is also faced with opportunities and threats from the external enviro nment. It is clear that it must take some action to offset these internal and external challenges if it is to survive and prosper as a continuing business enterprise. This paper is divided into three parts. ... In Part III, we shall assess the proposal for an ?1.8 million loan to be taken by the Kitchens Division of the business, based on the current gearing and ROI criteria as traditionally maintained by the company, and also suggest two other alternatives in this regard. PART I Brief Analysis of the Present Position of the Furniture Business Looking at the industry scenario given in the case, it appears that the furniture industry in the UK is highly specialized and moving towards maturity. In this stage of the product life cycle, there are a whole lot of producers and manufacturers of a product and the competition is intense, hence every firm is looking at ways to enlarge its business and increase its capacity in different areas. Jools Furniture Industries Ltd. has also done the same over the years and has managed to create four different divisions, each dealing in a different type of product or delivering to a different market. We have the Kitchens Division, the Quality Division, the Be drooms Division and the Office Division. The marketplace can also be classified into the Domestic, the Office and the Contract market. The domestic market is geared towards serving the public, mainly through retail outlets and making products for household use. The domestic market constitutes 58 percent or the major chunk of the market demand. On the other hand, the office market deals mainly with products concerning desking, seating, tables, cabinets and other items for the office environment. The office market consists of 13 percent of the total market demand. The contract market caters to the needs of furniture for public areas such as hotels, schools, residential accommodation and airports. The contract market constitutes 29 percent or little less
Monday, August 26, 2019
Marine Debris in the Hawaiian coast - Essay Example Solid material found in the marine environment is called marine debris. The common misconception is that it involves just a few pieces of harmless rubbish scattered along the shores of the ocean. Plastics are the most common types of marine debris with at least two hundred and sixty seven species having suffered from either ingest5ion or entanglement with these items. 5the scale of contamination is quite high with many attempts to address the issue including legislations and campaigns. There are various sources of marine debris all of which are categorized into four. First is tourist related litters that include beach toys, beverage packaging and cigarettes. The second category is sewage related debris including water from storm drains and water overflow from discharge waste during rainfall. Then there is fish related debris including fish pots, fishing lines and strapping bands from bait traps that are either lost in commercial fishing or dumped deliberately. The last category is waste from ships and boats that are mostly deliberately dumped (Laws, 2000:62). Marine debris washes up almost on a daily basis on the Hawaiian shores. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is the collection area of marine debris from the Pacific Ocean covering an area twice the size of USA. Currents, winds, and waves bring the debris to the Hawaiian island of Hawai`i, Kauai, Oahu, Kahoolawe, Lanai, Niihau, Molokai, and Maui as well as the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Most of this debris is plastic hence do not biodegrade. Although plastic later photo degrades, the process creates smaller particles that form smaller particles of plastic, which pose potential harm to marine life (Andrady, 2003:241). Harm to marine life The harm to marine life is twofold through either entanglement or ingestion and other miscellaneous factors. Ingestion Marine debris poses so much harm on the marine environment. Researchers found that 100% of albatrosses feed their chicks plastic. The adult
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Mangmnt 3010 - Essay Example The company can maintain itself through the effect of the implementation of this leadership style by hiring new employees. So, if the company engages in mere routine and unskilled jobs, it is easy to hire new employees without ill effects to company management and production. The tactical plan and actions to address Autocratic Leadership has its basic foundation in ensuring that the leadership style suits company goals and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to maintain such leadership style. From this, other plans may arise to ensure employee loyalty. This system of rewards has been proven as a good means to keep employees under control. A system of rewards as defined by a business dictionary as Ã¢â¬Å"procedures, rules, and standards associated with allocation of benefits and compensation to employeesÃ¢â¬ may be put into play. The company can devise steps for the giving of incentives, bonuses, and benefits to those who will continue to work well and obey management. Rewards may also b e given for employees who continue to stay with the company, perhaps a bonus for every three year anniversary. A government agency, NASA, defines employee relations as Ã¢â¬Å"involving the body of work concerned with the maintenance of employer-employee relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation, and morale.Ã¢â¬ This leaves no room for conflict or problems between co-employees and management. Management must ensure and maintain employees happy, creative and enthusiastic. By keeping employees in such a state, they will work better for the interests of the company. It is for this reason that the Florida Atlantic University promotes the creation of a positive environment and relationships based on good management practices and workplace behaviors. There are courses of action to create a positive environment and
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Prince of Turkish Pop - Essay Example He is largely known for his romantically themed songs, which earned him the title of prince of pop. He has several albums, which have been certified platinum, and he is among the few European artists to top the charts without singing in English. Tarkan is popularly known for his song S?mar?k, which has been redone twice in English by other musicians (Turkishmusicclub.com, n.d). It has also been covered in other languages all over the world by other musicians. He entered the world of music in the 1990s and he has more than 20 albums and singles to show for the years he has been in music. Because Turkey is generally a conservative country, he is seen as somewhat a rebel in his music. He has been a subject of controversy and he is idolized by the youth of his home place. He has well known for his stage performances that dazzle and his eclectic dance moves. His popularity has spread farther than his native country of Turkey to other areas especially Eastern Europe. He has performed to hu ge crowds in the United States of America, UK, Dubai, Israel, Macedonia and the list goes on and on. TarkanÃ¢â¬â¢s music is in his native dialect, which is Turkish, his decision to focus on his home and write and perform music that they can relate to, is what him made so endearing to his fan base back in turkey and across Arab speaking countries. This has seen him do collaborations with Arabian musicians thereby cementing his name in the music world. In true pop culture, TarkanÃ¢â¬â¢s music aims to appeal to a large audience and not just a limited crowd or subculture. His music does not reflect a specific ideology but is dynamic and catchy thereby attracting a big population especially the youth. Almost everyone in the world responds to music that has sentiments of love in it and this can be seen in almost all his works. As seen in his album Olurum Sana which literary means, I am crazy about you (Cable News Network, 1999), which went on to become his highest selling album. It so ld a record 4.5 million records in his home country Turkey alone, in the titled album was the song S?mar?km, which was responsible for him winning an award. An Arabic blog writes that he became this song was a sensational summer hit and the world was looking forward to another one by Tarkan (Hot Arabic Music, n.d). His concerts are filled to capacity and one was labeled as concert of the year by the council in Turkey. TarkanÃ¢â¬â¢s music is very danceable and he easily integrates dance in his recordings and live performances. He is said to be a great dancer and this goes to define him more and make him more attractive in his chosen style of music. To the pop world, a musician must be able to please his fans by his dance moves in addition to his sound. Therefore, it is a requirement for a singer or a band that calls it music pop to be able to sing and dance. For Tarkan though, it comes easy, as he is a natural dancer and performer (LetsSingIt, n.d). Pop music is very trend oriented , in that it sets to be a pace setter, which sees it commanding a large following by the youth, TarkanÃ¢â¬â¢s style, has been emulated by the youth in his country. They are eager to copy how he dresses and record music that seems to command a following like his. Pop culture has been the biggest contributor to the fashion world, the youth dress as they see their pop celebrities dressing
Friday, August 23, 2019
Drug and GPA - Assignment Example Introduction The study on the effect of drug on individual GPA is very useful and critical. This is owing to the fact that, in developed countries, one among four young people between the age of 12 and 20 are involved in drug abuse and excessive alcohol consumption. Several studies in United States learning institutions have also confirmed that drug abuse at young age significantly affects studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic performance. Drug abuse also results in increased conflict in schools and school dropouts. The threatening impacts of drugs and alcohol abuse on students GPA have therefore raised the need for intensive research to understand the manner in which drugs affect Grade Point Average at all academic levels (Hommer, 2003). The study will also be critical in helping the policy makers in coming up with an effective intervention measures to address the problem. Research question Does drug effect studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ GPA? Literature review Williams, Powell &Wechsler, (2003, undertook int ensive researches to understand the impact of drugs on GPA. Howver, among there researches, there is no study that has presented a convincing answer. The available research findings in the journal have however confirmed that drug abuse has a critical students GPA. Drusg also dertemines whether a student will remain in school or will terminate their education for other social purposes. Most of their studies that were conducted in the United States of America in 2003 and they linked drug abuse to various social challenges in higher learning institutions including school drop outs, hangovers, alcohol poisoning, Neuro-cognitive defects, and brain dysfunction (Williams, Powell &Wechsler, 2003).. ... Based on this research finding, it is also clear and accurate to observe that male GPA are largely affected by drug consumption more than their female counterparts. On their part, Zimmerman, Caldwell & Bernat, (2006), obrserved that male students who engage in excessive consumptions of alcohol and drugs have a poor GPA compared to female who are involved in the same social vice. Their study further indicated that the rate of drug abuse both in high schools and in other higher learning institutions is increasing at an alarming rate. Therefore, by considering the impact of drugs on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance, (Zimmerman, Caldwell & Bernat, 2006) recognised the importance of intensive research to intensively understand the manner in which drugs affects male and female students Grade Point Average (GPA) at all academic levels. The understanding of impact of drug abuse on male and female student GPA is also vital as it will help in searching for the most appropriate intervention measure s to address the vice (Zimmerman, Caldwell & Bernat, 2006) Method The study used random method to identify the sample. Data was obtained from a sample from CSUN students in June, 2009 (N=541). This sample composed of 35.6% males and 64.4% females. Respondents age was between 18-54 with mean age: 25.4 (s=5.619). The sample was also from different ethical background, 20.6% Asian-Pacific Islander, 25.6% Latino/Hispanic 8.1, 39.1% Caucasian, African American, and 5.6% other. The available information also indicates that among the 36,208 students registered at CSUN43% are men and 57% are women. Ethnically, the population is composed of Asian-Pacific
1 - Term Paper Example The Revelations of the Perfect Masters transcend the mind-barrier, where bliss alone reigns. It is a conflict-free zone and can not be captured in the printed pages. It can only be experienced. When slavery was actively and horridly practiced in South America, one could unhesitatingly assert that the guardians of religion had Cross dangling on their necks, but not Christ in the hearts. It is strange how religion remained mute witness to sleepwalking barbarity to the meanest of the mean deeds of slave holders. The Church protected and blessed them! The religious masters were the greatest torturer of the slaves. Slavery was a tragedy in the lives of the blacks. That it was practiced in the name of religion was the double tragedy! Slaves in the 1800s were kept ignorant about everything, except that they also possessed the human-body, in which the soul resided in that God-given abode! The first sentence about the Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass, the American Slave, is profound and says something tragic about the life of the slaves. The white masters had perfected the art of ultimate suppression of the blacks. Douglass writes, Ã¢â¬Å"I was born in Tuckahoe, near Hillsborough, and about twelve miles from Easton, in Talbot county, Maryland. I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it. By far the larger part of the slaves know as little of their ages as horses know of theirs, and it is the wish of most masters within my knowledge to keep their slaves thus ignorant. I do not remember to have ever met a slave who could tell of his birthday.Ã¢â¬ The question about the age was not liked by the white masters and it was termed improper and impertinent and in dication of a restless spirit of the individual. The scheme of torture was perfected, like that of a well thought plan of a mansion drawn by an architect. Black children suffered, from the cradle to the grave, from the womb to the
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Goody Proctor Essay He asked the question in such surprise and disgust, the author has been very extreme in many every day situations that we would think ordinary, another example is, Martha my wife. I have waked at night many a time and found her in a corner, reading a book. Now what do you make of that this tells us how the people of Salem cry witchcraft at anyone different, that something so ordinary to us may be deemed evil to another. Arthur Miller shows us how different there morals lie and this in turn contributes to our understanding of how Abigail lets things spiral so far out of control. When realizing the cultural difference and conversely the vast similarities that, though sometimes unnoticed, effected both the McCarthy trials and correspondingly us today; it makes the reader draw detections from there own lives and feel empathy for the characters and there unfortunate circumstances. The puritan rules add to the hysteria, as it makes simple life choices so dramatic, Marriage is a main pillar of the puritan lifestyle an example of how marriage becomes more imperative is shows this is the name goody this is the name given to puritans who are married. This shows us that to puritans class married women above others. In puritan realign one is not considered an adult until they are married, this also puts pressure on children to find a husband, this status is shown in an argument between john Procter and Marry Warren Ill whip the devil out of you go to bed -Ill not be ordered to bed any more, Mr. Procter! I am eighteen and a woman, however single. Marry Warren is generally a timid charter but she wants to be classed as a women despite the fact she is not married and because of that she is forced to speak out. This quote shows that a The whole of the puritan lifestyle in focused on marriage and church, both of which Abigail is tampering with, and to understand part of the reason as to why the people of Salem were so distort over whelmed and bewildered at how to cope with the accusation of witchcraft is that puritan people live a sheltered life restricted by the enforcers of there realign. An example of this is uncle we did dance Ill be whipped if I must to our modern day society and people in the 1950s this would seem outrageous and over barring that they want to control your life, but author miller is drawing links between capitalism and Puritanism, both trying to control peoples idea and way of life. It proves that the majority of people believe in what there told by there elected authority, capitalists say communism is bad; they then go round destroying the lifes of those who challenge them. In Salem they say all you must have in your life is church and marriage people that try a devoid from their rules e. g.Ã supposed whichs, were prosecuted and eventually killed. But there comes a point where a person must stand up for what is clearly and ethically wrong, in the McCarthy trial it was Arthur miller through writing this play, and in Slam it was john Procter, the protagonist in this tragedy, the main character, author millers own creation. The author perceptively wrote Abigails fictional self based on that of a real person, whose identity adds to the depth of the character; a young girl named Abigail Williams, aged 10 in the McCarthy trials was Arthur Millers foundation for the fictional character that was later formed. At first the most noticeable feature is there difference in age however when looking at the fictional Abigail Williams immaturity insinuates this make them more similar than first perceived this is shown in the quote [with a flash of anger]: How do you call me child this shows her irrational unstable emotions and insecurities and as a result her actions make her seemingly more childlike as she seems to be oblivious to the damage she causes throughout Salem. This is also displayed in the way she talks to her friends an example is in the quote I say shut it, Marry Warren! this demonstrate how immaturely and impatiently she deals with people. Another example is though the way she talks to the reverend about others Its a bitter woman, a lying, cold sniveling woman Goody Proctor is a gossiping liar! she is talking to her uncle a senior and supposedly respected family member refer more a man of highest authority within Salem. Yet despite this fact she is still rude, unforgiving and disrespectful whilst in the presence of a man of the church Abigail doesnt refer to her as a person with feelings rather uses the words, its and woman. Moreover she uses lying, cold and sniveling, three descriptive words to emphasize her point, this repetitive technique is a demonstration of how grammar and techniques like this contribute to her subtle yet calculated persuasion. Finally even the grand judge of the court Danforth, if you make me answer that question I shall leave and never come back! this show that even when the truth is shown she is so stubborn that she will deny it until she is blue in face, even when she is about to be proved wrong she stands her ground as she cannot handle anyone challenging her self authority like a child having a temper tantrum. Abigail is determined in her will to acquire john Procter so much so she comes across as spoilt and stubborn. This is shown in the quote you love me John Procter an what ever sin it is you love me yet This childlike character trait is very important as her stubborn and irrational ideas are what drive her to continue accusing witches. Abigails sharp mind helps her convincing overpower the people around her. The other girls look up to Abby, she is always sure in herself insert quote this makes them idolize her and consequently this prompts the girls do what she wants, an example of this is said by one of the girls Marry Warren whatll we do? The whole countrys talking witchcraft! Theyll be calling us witches Abby this show that they confide an trust her, she uses Abigail informal name Abby this suggest she sees Abigail as a friend, this is supported as they turn to her for advice as she seems more mature, but her scheming mind uses this admiration to force them to do as she demands. Her controlling nature is also apparent in the quote Betty? Now Betty dear wake up now. Its Abigail. Ill beat you Betty! My you seem to be improving shes uses a rage of different devices to suit the target audience, in this case Betty is a small child, and so she plays on her dependence on Abigail, by instilling fear this is done through using changes in approach such as variations of tone at first gentle then angry and then comforting, she even resorts to threats till she gets her to talk, she takes the audience through emotional ride with unexpected twists this makes her good not just as a fascinating character but as a device on stage. Secondly innocent people within the village, I wrote in his book; I go back to Jesus; I kiss his hand. I saw Sarah good with e the devil! I saw goody Osborn with the devil! I saw Bridget bishop with the devil! this also shows she has no remorse as she continually accuses and as a results has them killed. Thirdly Abigail is clever this adds to her manipulation she works out how to get around people, a quote which shows this is, we danced that is all breathe a word about the other things, and I will come to you in the black of some terrible night and however although Abigail sees her self in a higher status to the other girls and as such comfortable in making them experience weakness so they feel reliance upon her. Arthur miller wrote the Crucible as a Tragedy this adds to the drama created by the charters, as we know they are destined for a disastrous and untimely end. The author has included typical themes used in a tragedy. Firstly he is describing the downfall of a great man in this case john Procter. What makes him grate is that he is the only person that sees through the high courts for what they really are however he gave in to temptation insert quote about john sleeping with Abigail this quote tells us his hubris, his weakness it was that he lusted after Abigail and committed adultery. She is his weakness an as such is a hamartia, the person that causes the downfall of the protagonist. Abigails importance as a hamartia is so vital to the play, so much if she hadnt of slept with john, the chain of events that led to his death and the many others in the witch trials, wouldnt have happened. Consequently its Abigails lust for john that causes her to go to the woods, that starts the witchcraft suspicions that Abigail uses to her vindictive advantage. The start of the Salem witch trial was initiation by Abigail Williams, with the soul purpose of accusing Elizabeth and gets her killed. She did this because she is assumed with love for john and wants to believe her feelings arent unrequited, give me a word, john. A soft word. (Her concentrated smile and desire destroys his smile) the remembrance of the affair makes john uncomfortable and unhappy, this shows that where as Abigail is still hopeful, shown through concentrated desire those words show us how unrelenting her love is, she is desperately searching for some reassurance that her feelings are not unrequited. However Abigail says you loved me, john proctor, and whatever sin it is, you love me yet! this shows us how insecure she is, that she tries to convince someone to love her, and by saying it out loud shes almost trying to convince herself. This unrequited love makes us feel sorry for Abigail as shes desperately trying to make excuses for him. In his quote she says loving her is a sin, this is an important in the puritan lives, as they are meant live for god. If she is a sin it is understandable that he does not show his feelings for her.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Cultural Differences Between Trinidad and Tobago You are a Tobagonian recently returned from your first trip to Trinidad where you spent two weeks. Record in your journal, the differences you have observed in the culture of the two islands. Based on your knowledge of the history of both islands, give explanations for those differences. In one entry you may also note any cultural similarities you observed. Today marks one week since I have returned from the wonderful island of Trinidad, which is the sister island of my homeland, Tobago. The islands are located on the northern edge of South America on the north-eastern coast of Venezuela. I have always wanted to visit Trinidad, since I have heard countless stories about the great experiences my family had there. Fortunately, I finally had the chance to create memorable experiences of my own, during a two week stay at the multi-cultural island, Trinidad. My trip started from February 24th and ended on March 9th. I arrived at Trinidad at approximately two oÃ¢â¬â¢clock during the day on Monday, the place was furiously heated, and the sun was scorching my skin as I waited on my Aunt to pick me up from the Port. I remembered taking a deep breathe of polluted air, yes, polluted. Usually, in Tobago the air is clean, fresh and uncontaminated, on the other hand, in Trinidad; the air seemed to be comprised of filth and pounds of dust. Neverthel ess, my Aunt picked me up at half past two, and that was when my journey to the exploration of the differences and similarities of the cultural attributes between Trinidad and Tobago had begun. As a result, the cultural experiences I observed or was exposed to in Trinidad, were the language used, the education system, the tradition of Ã¢â¬Ëkeeping ah wakeÃ¢â¬â¢, the celebration of Carnival and the diversity of religion. On the very first day of visiting Trinidad, the first cultural difference I observed between Trinidad and Tobago was the language that was spoken. On the way to my AuntÃ¢â¬â¢s place, we stopped off to buy the most popular food in Trinidad, Ã¢â¬ËdoublesÃ¢â¬â¢. As I sat in the passengerÃ¢â¬â¢s seat, and waited for my aunt to buy the food, I observed the behaviour and language that the Trinidadians portrayed. Apparently, a man of the African descent has been waiting a long while for service from the doubles vendor, and this caused him to cuss out in an unpleasant manner. Also, I noticed his accent as well as the other buyers, had influences of the Indian, African, French and Spanish heritages (Chapter Five: Trinidad and Tobago Intercontinental Book Centre, 2014). This was quite interesting to me because the dialect in Tobago comes mostly from the African heritage. Also, Patois which is a variety of Spanish and French was once widely spoken in Trinidad until the end of the 1800Ã ¢â¬â¢s, as a result; there are various traces of the language combined in the Trinidadian Creole English. Trinidadians and Tobagonians both speak Creole English; however, there is a difference with the use of grammar and pronunciation in which Trinidadians used (Language Facts About Trinidad and Tobago, 2014). In contrast, Tobagonian Creole English was derived from the French, Dutch and Courlander settlers (Trinidad and Tobago Speaking the Language | ExpatFocus.com, 2014), but the TobagoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialect is influenced predominantly by the Africans. On the second day of my visit to Trinidad, I observed the first similarity between the two islands which is the education system. After having breakfast at my Aunt LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s place, we left to drop off her daughters, Sarah and Maria to their schools. On our way there, I noticed there were a lot of schools in Trinidad, from Primary schools to Tertiary Institutes. Sarah attended a Primary school and she was in the seventh year, therefore, she would be writing her final exam soon, to gain entry into a Secondary school. On the other hand, Maria is in the fifth year of Secondary school, and she will also be sitting a final exam to gain access into a Tertiary institute. After dropping off the two girls to their schools, Lisa and I were talking about how thankful we are that Trinidad and Tobago has an education system that is free for all. Luckily, in the past, education opportunities started to expand from 1852, in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s the secondary education system was established, vocati onal schools were opened and primary schools were fully integrated. Hence, the British system took charge of the education system of Trinidad and Tobago in the twentieth century, and now education is available to all elements of society (Trinidad and Tobago EDUCATION, 2014). The other similarity I observed between Trinidad and Tobago was experienced on the fourth day of my visit, which was the tradition of Ã¢â¬Ëkeeping ah wakeÃ¢â¬â¢. I was able to experience this tradition, not only in Tobago which is my homeland, but in Trinidad as well, and the tradition of a Ã¢â¬ËwakeÃ¢â¬â¢ is quite the same in both countries. On Friday morning, Lisa was notified of a death of one of her neighbours, an eighty two year old woman who was very kind to her and her family. Later that day, Lisa and I got dressed to attend the Ã¢â¬ËwakeÃ¢â¬â¢ at the neighbourÃ¢â¬â¢s home. Presently, a wake is the gathering of friends and relatives at the home of the deceased. We made a contribution of coffee and biscuits to the home, and other friends and relatives brought alcohol, tea and more coffee. As I got acquainted with the other neighbours that were present at the wake, I noticed a group of men were playing cards and drinking alcohol and the ladies were drinking tea and chatting amongst themselves. I was informed that the funeral of the old woman was to be held on the Sunday; therefore, every night until Sunday, the deceased home will be Ã¢â¬Ëholding a wakeÃ¢â¬â¢. The word Ã¢â¬ËwakeÃ¢â¬â¢ originated from the Old English word Ã¢â¬ËwacuÃ¢â¬â¢ which is related to the contemporary word Ã¢â¬ËwatchÃ¢â¬â¢. After two hours during the wake, everyone gathered together to engage in prayer for the passing of the old woman. Originally, Ã¢â¬Å"the wake was a prayer vigil where family and friends would pray for the soul of the deceasedÃ¢â¬ (Wilton, 2004). Therefore, this family was sticking with the true tradition of Ã¢â¬Ëkeeping ah wakeÃ¢â¬â¢. Although, in the past, there was a misconception that people in many Celtic countries in Europe held a wake by placing the dead body on a table while relatives gathered around drinking alcohol and watched the dead body to see if it will wake up (Wilton, 2004). Nevertheless, in Trinidad and Tobago, Ã ¢â¬Ëholding a wakeÃ¢â¬â¢ is quite common when there is a death in a family. However, the association of prayer at a wake has become less significant, and it is more associated with social interactions. Fortunately, in Trinidad, I was able to witness the real tradition of Ã¢â¬Ëkeeping ah wakeÃ¢â¬â¢. On day eight, the second cultural difference between Trinidad and Tobago in which I experienced was the festival called Carnival. My family from Tobago always talked about their amazing experiences; however, my experience with Carnival at Trinidad was truly a disturbingly memorable one. Every year, my aunt and her family usually go to Port of Spain to look at the celebration, which comprises of colourful costumes, music, dance and public partying on the streets. We arrived at Port of Spain at approximately twelve o clock during the day on Carnival Tuesday, the sun was incredibly hot and I felt like my skin was almost blistering as I stood up to witness the display of the parade of the bands, with their multi-colour costumes on the masqueraders. In addition, they vulgarly danced along with the Soca music, which was a great annoyance to me. It was quite disturbing to see adults behave in such indecent and unacceptable behaviour in the presence of young children. Aside from the negative feedback I have on Carnival, the only aspect I actually enjoyed were the sight of the unique and beautiful costumes. Originally, Carnival was established by the French settlers in the 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s and was celebrated by the upper class people. As a result, the slaves of the island mimicked the celebrations of the French, and this was spread to all the freed slaves after the abolition of slavery. Therefore, they dressed with feathers and different costumes, and celebrated their freedom on the streets, hence, Carnival was established. In contrast, in Tobago, the islandÃ¢â¬â¢s traditions and history are embraced, while the celebration is associated with speech bands, whip wielding devils known as Ã¢â¬Ëjab jabsÃ¢â¬â¢ and African drumming (Trinidad and Tobago The True Caribbean Official Travel and Tourism Site, 2014). All in all, I disliked my experience with Carnival in Trinidad, since the celebration was not about tradition, but it was more associated wit h vulgarity, and disorderly behaviour. Lastly, on the ninth day of my visit, I observed another cultural difference between Trinidad and Tobago, the diversity of religion. Trinidad is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"a multi -cultural melting potÃ¢â¬ (Trinidad and Tobago The True Caribbean Official Travel and Tourism Site, 2014). When I visited Trinidad, I had the opportunity to attend a Hindu prayers held by my relatives on the Wednesday after Carnival, in which Hindus gathered at a temple, to worship their Gods. I observed that women were dressed in beautifully sequenced Indian wear while the males dressed in plain white cotton cloth. The ceremony was held for two hours, and everyone clapped their hands while they sang and recite chants, and the musicians at the front were gracefully beating the drum called a Ã¢â¬ËtablaÃ¢â¬â¢ together with the soft sound of the harmonium. Also, I observed that not only were Indians present in the temple, but people of the African descent as well. This particular Hindu ceremony was definit ely interesting to me because in Tobago I was never able to attend any prayers other than Christian. Also, on that same day, on my way to the prayers, I noticed there were a lot of people attending Christian churches; this was due to the festivity called Lent. Compared to Tobago, Trinidad is certainly more diverse in religion and culture, and this is mainly because of the historical upbringings and heritages. For instance, the Roman Catholics were the first religious group to arrive in Trinidad in 1498, Africans were brought to the island due to the slave trade in 1797, and in 1845 the indentured labourers consisting of mostly Hindus and Muslims were also brought to the island (Culture (Trinidad), 2014). Hence, there are still traces in the elements of the religions from the past, and represented in Trinidad. On the other hand, in Tobago, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t usually see people of other religions, different from Christian, because TobagoÃ¢â¬â¢s population remained predominantly of the African descent. Therefore, there is not diversity in religion in Tobago, as there is in Trinidad (Culture (Trinidad), 2014). In conclusion, Trinidad and Tobago are two magnificent islands that share many similarities and differences in terms of cultures. Fortunately, I was able to experience a few of the cultural attributes of Trinidad, during my two weeks stay. Thus, on the first day, I experienced/observed that the language used in Trinidad is slightly different to TobagoÃ¢â¬â¢s language since the language in Trinidad is influenced by a larger variety of heritages than Tobago. In addition, on the second day I noticed a great similarity in the education system of both islands, since education is free for all from the primary level education onwards and the structure of the system is the same as well, due to the model of the British system. Also, of the fourth day I was able to experience the true tradition of a Ã¢â¬ËwakeÃ¢â¬â¢, which was originated by the Europeans. Alternatively, on the eighth day of my visit, I experienced the celebration of the famous Trinidad Carnival, which is more ostentatious , colourful, and indecent compared to Tobago, where the celebration is more traditional and laid back. Subsequently, on the ninth day, I realised that Trinidad is more diverse in terms of religion rather than Tobago due to the various heritages left behind in the past by immigrants. All in all, my experience of the visitation of Trinidad was quite memorable, and I am now aware of the cultural similarities and differences, along with its historical significance. REFERENCES Chapter Five: Trinidad and Tobago Intercontinental Book Centre. (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Sites.google.com: https://sites.google.com/site/intercontinentalbookcentre/a-look-at-the-caribbean-and-its-people-and-culture/chapter-five-trinidad-and-tobago Chapter Five: Trinidad and Tobago Intercontinental Book Centre. (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Sites.google.com: https://sites.google.com/site/intercontinentalbookcentre/a-look-at-the-caribbean-and-its-people-and-culture/chapter-five-trinidad-and-tobago Culture (Trinidad). (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Bestoftrinidad.com: http://www.bestoftrinidad.com/culture.html Language Facts About Trinidad and Tobago. (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Amazing-trinidad-vacations.com: http://www.amazing-trinidad-vacations.com/facts-about-trinidad.html Trinidad and Tobago EDUCATION. (2014). Retrieved March 22, 2014, from Countrystudies.us: http://countrystudies.us/caribbean-islands/43.htm Trinidad and Tobago History Background. (2014). Retrieved March 22, 2014, from Education.stateuniversity.com: http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1541/Trinidad-Tobago-HISTORY-BACKGROUND.html Trinidad and Tobago Speaking the Language | ExpatFocus.com. (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Expatfocus.com: http://www.expatfocus.com/expatriate-trinidad-tobago-language Trinidad and Tobago The True Caribbean Official Travel and Tourism Site. (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Gotrinidadandtobago.com: http://www.gotrinidadandtobago.com/trinidad/carnival/ Wilton, D. (2004). The Elizabethan E-mail Hoax. In Word Myths: debunking linguistic urban legends (p. 74). New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Role Of The English Language In Malaysia English Language Essay Abstract This research examines the role of the English language in Malaysia, a former British colony in South East Asia from the 18th to the 20th century. My research question asks: to what extent can English be a unifying language in Malaysia? In order to approach the issue, the question has been narrowed down into two parts: English can be a unifying language of Malaysia; and English cannot be a unifying language of Malaysia. The influence of English in the lives of Malaysians such as daily life, workplace and education has been examined. There is a dichotomy in views whether English can become a unifying language in Malaysia. One side believes that English has already become an important part of Malaysian identity, particularly due to its colonial past and its current status of one of the languages of instruction in primary, secondary and tertiary education and also the status of business language. There is another view, mainly held by the Malay nationalists, opposed to such opinions due to the fact that there is a huge gap in the English language proficiency between people from the urban and rural areas. Three interviews have been conducted as part of the methods of investigation, but the most influential interviewee was Ram Mohann, an English teacher in a Malaysian secondary school. Books, news articles and academic journals have been used as well. The main sources for this research are written by Malaysian professors of linguistics, Azirah Hashim and Loga Baskaran. It is concluded that English can be a unifying language in Malaysia. The conclusion drawn is based on the fact that English plays an important role in the lives of Malaysians, private sectors and education in Malaysia. Most importantly, English is also regarded as a language that integrates all Malaysians by the non-Malays. Word count: 298 Introduction Malaya (now Malaysia) was a nation that had been occupied by European superpowers such as the Portuguese, Dutch and the British since the 16th century. However, the ones that really made a linguistic influence on the land were the British. Even though they left and granted independence to Malaya in 1957, one legacy that they have left the country is their language, English. English had been the official language of the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States since the 1800s during the occupation of Great Britain and also served as the official language of Malaysia for a decade after the nations independence in 1957. However, in order to promote national unity and increase the participation of Bumiputra (Malay-ethnic and indigenous people) in tertiary education, the Malaysian government removed English from its official role and promoted the use of Bahasa Malaysia (Malaysian or Malay language) in 1967.Ã Ã Nevertheless, English remains a dominant second language in Malaysia. It is still widely used in private companies. For the last two decades, the status of English has been a much debated-upon and jostled-about issue.Ã Ã In this essay, I will investigate the role of English in Malaysia today. My research question is as follows; to what extent can English be a unifying language in Malaysia? Unifying language must be defined in order to answer the question. In this case, unifying language refers to the language that joins the people of Malaysia as a whole. I will discuss how English is used in many aspects of Malaysian lives in order to answer my research question. Moreover, the language of instruction in Malaysia will also serve as a springboard to investigate the role of English in Malaysia. Even though English is no longer an official language in Malaysia and therefore some might argue that Malaysia is not an Anglophone nation, the widespread usage of English in Malaysia is a fact that is beyond any question. English is a business language and a common language used among ordinary Malaysians, particularly in urban areas. Moreover, it is widely known that many of the older generation [in Malaysia] speak [English] very well.Ã Ã Some elites even argue that English and Malay play an equally important role to help unite the people and create a unique national consciousness.Ã Ã English is used for a variety of functions in professional and social transactions not only with the international community but also within the society.Ã Ã In addition, even though all English-medium schools had been changed to Malay-medium schools in the 1980s, the implementation of PPSMI (teaching and learning Science and Math in English) policy in all Malaysian public schools s ince Primary One indicates that the government is not only concerning about the globalisation of the nation, but also with the importance of the language in Malaysia herself.Ã Ã Hence, the use of English as a local language in Malaysia rather than an international language is enough to make Malaysia an unofficial Anglophone country. English can be a unifying language in Malaysia English language is the global lingua franca, a language for diplomacy and international trade. Workforces with good command of English will put the country a huge advantage in the world. According to Braj Kachrus three-circle model of World Englishes that categorises World Englishes into three concentric circles, which include Inner Circle representing the traditional base of English; Outer Circle that representing countries where English is not an official language but plays an important role; and Expanding Circle, including countries that employ it as a foreign language and for only limited purposes, Malaysia is listed under the Outer Circle.Ã Ã This model indicates that there are a sizeable amount of people who use English as a first language. According to Azirah Hashim, a Professor of Linguistics in University of Malaya, English is used for a variety of functions in professional and social transactions not only with the international community but also within the society.Ã Ã The quote tells us that Malaysians do not only use it as an international language, but some perceive English as a local language as well. Hashims view is not her own wishful thinking. It is evident everywhere in Malaysia, in both the Malaysian education and lives of Malaysia citizens. Broken English is very commonly used by taxi drivers, pedestrian pedlars, food hawkers, gardeners, garbologists, florists and food caterers.Ã Ã For instance, phrases such as Buy 1 Free 1 or RM 5 for 2 are always visible in Malaysias local supermarkets, departmental stores and pasar malam, a Malay word for night market. It indicates that even for those who are not highly educated, they all have the enthusiasm to speak English because the degree of international integration is simply moving in leaps and bounds and man-on-the-street has to survive.Ã Ã Most importantly, it shows that English is gaining more currency within Malaysian society, especially in urban areas.Ã Ã After the PPSMI policy was implemented in 2003, the decision was described by some journalists as revive the glory of the language and reclaim English in education, which seems to allude to recognition of English as not just a global or international language, not just a European language, but also as a Malaysian language.Ã Ã Moreover, even though there arent any official statistics available, it is known that there are sizeable numbers of English private kindergartens in Malaysia, particularly in urban areas. For non-English medium privately-owned kindergartens, English is always taught as one of the subjects apart from their mother tongue. According to a Malaysian Indian who is only willing to be identified as Subramaniam, My children are all studying in English-medium kindergarten because I know only a good command of English will lead them to success and I want them to build their foundation since they are young.Ã Ã This comment reflects the fact that the Malaysia n parents are aware of the importance of English in todays world as well as Malaysian society itself and they know that a good command of English will put their children in a better position in todays world. In addition, English is generally taught 280 minutes per week in public schoolsÃ Ã , which is even more than the teaching time for the senior class in Xiamen International School, an English-medium and IB World school. It must be noted that in Malaysian education, all high school students in public schools are required to learn English literature and English comprehension, rather than beginner English class. If the teaching time of English in a bilingual education is even more than an English-medium school, it indicates that English plays an equally important role for both Ministry of Education of Malaysia as well as an IB World school. However, it must also be noted that the level of English comprehension and/or literature might be lower than that of IB Diploma course, and hence the statistics do not indicate everything. According to a well-known Malaysian Indian journalist and politician, the late MGG Pillai, those who know English are better positioned for jobs than those without.Ã Ã That was his comment regards the importance of English in his article written in 1994. His assessment was right spot on in todays world. In major companies in Malaysia, the only language used in a company meeting is English.Ã Ã Meanwhile, some meetings in governmental departments are conducted in English as well, but mostly depending on the language preferred by the head of the department.Ã Ã Reports such as annual reports or financial reports are either in English or in both English and Malay. For example, Malaysia Airlines, the national carrier of Malaysia, presents its financial reports to their staff only in EnglishÃ Ã . Meanwhile, it is known that the language a flight attendant will use is English, even for domestic flights although the national language is Malay.Ã Ã When a pilot or co-pilot announces the latest information about the flight, English is always preferred for both domestic and international flights. If private companies prefer English and English language is also widely used in governmental departments although Malay is supposed to be the language of instruction, it tells us that English does play an equally important role in todays Malaysia. Moreover, English is no longer seen as a competitive advantage but a basic requirement for jobseekers.Ã Ã In 2005, the Malaysian government conducted a survey of nearly 60,000 Malaysian graduates who were unemployed. It was also revealed in the survey that 81 per cent of the unemployed attended public universities where the medium of instruction in many courses is in Malay.Ã Ã Moreover, according to the senior consultant of Alpha Platform Sdn Bhd, a Malaysian full service communication firm, Many of the [graduates] are rejected five minutes into an interview due to their atrocious co mmand of [English].Ã Ã Those examples show that Malaysians with lack of proficiency in English will be at a serious disadvantage in Malaysian society. It also suggests that English is gradually replacing Malays prominence in Malaysia, especially in private sectors. In addition, English is also very common in the lives of ordinary people in Malaysia. For instance, no English language entertainment import is ever dubbed and local television channels in Malaysia screen a wide variety of English cartoons, serials, dramas and films in original language with Malay subtitles only.Ã Ã There are sizeable numbers of local English magazines and newspapers such as Flavours, Football Weekly, the Star, New Strait Times, Business Times, the Sun, Motor Trader, Golf Malaysia, BPL and many others. Moreover, there are many well-known foreign magazines such as Times, Readers Digest, PC Magazine, and Newsweek on sale all over Malaysia. The numbers of English newspapers all over Malaysia is exactly the same as that of Malay language.Ã Ã Several foreign publishers even publish their own magazines in Malaysian version in English language such as FourFour Two and Top Gear from United Kingdom.Ã Ã In addition, English books have dominated the two largest bookstore chains in Malaysia, MPH Bookstore and Popular Bookstore. An English teacher, Ram Mohann, claimed that Popular bookstore has around 65% of English books while English books almost dominate MPH bookstores in Malaysia with around 90% by citing internal sources.Ã Ã Those different statistics and information do indicate that there is a big market for English readers in Malaysia.Ã Ã However, it must be stressed that Mohann is only a teacher, not a market profession and his internal sources might not be very reliable either. Nevertheless, it is always known by Malaysians the dominance of English books in that either of those two bookstores or other bookstores is a fact that is beyond any doubt. On 9th July 2009, the Ministry of Education announced that the PPSMI policy will be abandoned starting 2012 by citing the percentage of students who achieved A to C for science had fallen by around 4% in both urban and rural schools. Basically the overturn of the policy means that all science-based and math subjects in Malaysian public schools will be reverting back to Malay for government schools, Chinese for Chinese schools and Tamil for Tamil schools. The reversal of the policy has caused as much debates as the ones when the policy was first implemented in 2003. For instance, Azimah Abdul Rahim, the chairman of Parents Action Group for Education (PAGE), questioned the reversal of the government on behalf of all parents by telling the reporter that there might be some schools which would want to continue teaching in English. I think there should be a choice. There are many Malaysians whose first language is English.Ã Ã In addition, Lim Kit Siang, a prominent opposition lead er in Malaysian politics, described the decision as a Raw Deal leaving Malaysia stranded in the march towards global educational quality, excellence and competitivenessÃ Ã . Moreover, Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad, the former Prime Minister of Malaysia who was known for his Malay nationalism and the leader who, surprisingly, introduced the PPSMI policy under his administration, posted a poll regards the PPSMI abolishment and the result shows that 84 per cent want to retain English as the language medium for these subjects.Ã Ã Mahathir also questions how [the reversal of PPSMI] is going to help integrate Malaysians,Ã Ã which implies that English is not just a medium of instruction for science and math and business language in Malaysia, but at the same time a language that should help unify all Malaysians as a whole. However, it must be stressed that his view might be subjective as Lim is a leader from opposition party and the fact he was educated under English medium. Moreover, as Mahathir mentions in his blog, the result of the poll might be somewhat subjective as well since it was conducted in the English language and English language speakers might be biased in favour of English.Ã Ã Nevertheless, the views collected, which represent the parents and politicians, have emphasized the fact that a lot Malaysians believe that it will be hard for their children to survive in the future with lack of proficiency in English and also reflected the fact that English speakers and the language itself do play an important role in the today and future society of Malaysia. English cannot be a unifying language of Malaysia While there is no doubt about the importance of English in private sectors in Malaysia, it must be stressed that Malay has been the sole official language of Malaysia since 1970 and the use of this language in various sectors is encouraged under the National Language Act.Ã Ã The Malay nationalists are particularly against the increasing prominence of English in Malaysia, especially in education. This strong feeling had been shown by the Malay-ethnic people in a protest against the use of English in March 2009, which eventually caused the reversal of PPSMI policy.Ã Ã Supporters of PPSMI always use Singapore, the neighbouring nation that once was part of Malaysia, as an example of how language skills can be a key to a connecting local workers and industries to global economy.Ã Ã However, the reversal of PPSMI could eventually undermine the role of English in Malaysia today and the future because the students will have less opportunity to use the language in class in the future. Therefore, for the next generation, instead of English, there is a possibility that Malay might become the language that is going to be widely used among professionals. According to Muhyiddin Yassin, the minister of education Malaysia, , only 8% of teachers were using English exclusively in classes while the use of [Malay language] was still common, particularly in rural areasÃ Ã Muhyiddins concern reveals several problems in Malaysian education today the gap between students from urban and rural areas and the lack of proficiency in English among Malaysian local teachers. According to Dr. Nor Hashimah Jalauddin, a professor in National University of Malaysias School of Language and Linguistics, students in urban areas adjusted better to the PPSMI compared with students in rural areasÃ Ã and that English is considered a foreign language and third language for students in Sabah, Sarawak, Kelantan, Terrengganu, Kedah and Perlis.Ã Ã She is convinced that learning Math and Science in English is a burden for students due to their lack of proficiency in English. In fact, it is not only a burden for students, even the Malaysian teachers going mad teaching subjects in EnglishÃ Ã because most Math and Science teachers in service were trained under the National Language Policy, which the language of instruction is Malay.Ã Ã According to Dr Khalil Idham Lim Abdullah, while [the teachers] are still grappling with the language, they are required to teach their students as well.Ã Ã This claim is supported by M ohann as well, there are 75% of [Science and Math teachers] were trained in Malay and that there is hardly a big improvement [in English for teachers] since .Ã Ã Even though the statistics given only refers to one particular school, it does suggest that there are a large number of teachers who cant use English fluently. If the teachers cant even speak fluent English, how can we expect the students to develop their language skill significantly and hence how is language going to become the unifying language? Even though English plays an important role in Malaysias society today, the amount of English speakers is rather limited. According to David Crystal, the total number of English as First Language speakers in Malaysia was 1.88% by 1994 while the number fell by 0.16% nine years later. Meanwhile, the total number of L1 and L2 speakers only rose from 31.9% to 33.2% within nine years and the rise is rather slight as well.Ã Ã 44The statistics indicate that there are very few fluent speakers Malaysia and thus English is definitely not a language that is understood by all Malaysians. Unifying language should be the language that unites the whole nation and if English is not generally understood by all Malaysia citizens, how can it be the unifying language of the country? The biggest problem that might threaten the status of English in Malaysia is the fact that English is a colonial legacy left by the British and it is evident that the Malays have been trying to wipe off the memory of colonialism. For instance, even though the Malaysian government only removed Englishs official role by 1967, ten years after independence, and removed all English-medium schools only by 1972, the Englishs elitist status in education and administration had been immediately downgraded in 1957.Ã Ã They find it hard in accepting that English could be an ingredient in Malaysian national identity, in spite of its use in cultural situations in Malaysia at present.Ã Ã Instead, they believe Malay is for national identity and English is for progress and for wider communication, which implies the Malays believe that English should be used for globalisation and internationalisation rather than a local language.Ã Ã Thus, as Tan suggests, the fact that Malaysia is categorised under the Outer Circle means that it is more appropriate to talk about [the role of English in Malaysia in] individual communities or sections of society rather than the whole country.Ã Ã Conclusion English is an important language in both the past and current society of Malaysia. Competence in English as a compulsory condition for employees in most private sectors and some governmental departments has emphasized the increasing prominence of English in the country. Moreover, the implementation of PPSMI policy in 2003 has significantly increased the usage of English among the new generation, especially those who are teenagers now and will become the future backbone of the country. While the implementation of PPSMI policy indicates that fact the government is concerned about the importance of English in the country, the debates among professionals and ordinary Malaysians regards the reversal of the policy also reveals how significant the language is for the people. In addition, the dominance of English books and magazines in bookstores of Malaysia indicates that there is a huge market for English books in Malaysia. However, some Malaysians, particularly the Malays, believe the only language that can unify all Malaysians is the Malay language. The lack of qualified teachers with fluent English is a reason why English is not a unifying language. Meanwhile, the inequality of English proficiency between students from urban areas and rural areas proves that English is not commonly understood by all Malaysians and hence it will not create national unity. Besides the proficiency of the teachers and students, the rather low percentage of English speakers also reveals the same problem in making English the unifying language in Malaysia. All in all, even though this issue is still rather debatable, the conclusion drawn is that English can be a unifying language in Malaysia to some extent. English plays an important role in the lives of ordinary Malaysians, private sectors and education in Malaysia. However, the usage of Malay language is encouraged in public sectors. The overturn of PPSMI policy in July 2009 has put the status of English in the country into doubt. Moreover, Malays believe their language should be the tool to unite the whole nationÃ Ã but the Indians and/or Chinese believe Malay language will create division among all Malaysians. They believe that we should emulate the model of Singapore since English is a neutral language between all the different ethnicities as it does not identify any of the races in Malaysia and thus it will create an equal society.Ã Ã Bibliography
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Attitudes of the Poets in Warning and Old man Both poems represent a picture of old age. Jenny Joseph's view of what she imagines life will be like, and her expectations, where-as U A Fanthorpe's observation of old age, is of her father, and is written from her own experience. Jenny Joseph sees old age as a positive experience. She seems to believe she will be free from responsibility. "I shall go out in my slippers in the rain." She suggests these are the things she would enjoy to do now, but if she were to actually do these now, people would disapprove of her actions. She assumes that when she gets old, others will accept childish actions. Jenny Joseph does not see herself unable to do anything that she can do at the moment. Her picture of old age is one of being active. "Sit down on the pavement when I'm tired." She sees this as being a childish act, as she would not consider sitting on the pavement now. She does not think about the restrictions that old age bring. In "Old man, old man" Fanthorpe presents a picture of her fathers old age. He is unable to do many things he once could do. "Now his hands shamble among clues" =================================== Fanthorpe's father could once do these things for himself but now he needs the help off the other people. Fanthorpe raises issues that are negative towards old age, and how old people are like children, the way they become dependant on others. Most of the behaviour described in both poems is childish. Jenny Joseph seems to see age as a second childhood. "Pick the flowers in other peoples gardens" She sees this an act that children can get away with, she also sees this as a step into a new freedom, where as Fanthorpe... ...cking her father, at his expense, someone suggesting another to be the 'lord' of something is of high status, and so it is funny as it is only a shed. There is also a sense of sadness to the poem, as she recounts of her father not being good with her when she was young. "Not good with daughters" I believe that the motive for this is because of his interest's in D.I.Y rather than the more necessary and essential things in life. Fanthorpes father has seemed to lose all-important aspects of his character, even the aspects that were dislikeable about his personality. He has begun to be dependent on other people, and is unaware of what is happening. I think both poems represent humour and compassion. Jenny Joseph represents the bright and optimistic observation's of old age, where-as Fanthorpe raises depressing and discouraging vision's of old age.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Since 2001, when September 11th happened, many people in the United States have had a fear of allowing immigrants into the U.S. It went to levels of border control and more. Therefore some judge that immigration is a threat to the U.S. They should not consider that because everything that occurs is not due to immigrants, it is just Ã¢â¬Å"The Realities of ImmigrationÃ¢â¬ (Chavez, 46). The government can stop illegal immigration right now but would it not affect the U.S. more to do so? Ã¢â¬Å"Restrictionists claim that large-scale immigration-legal and illegal-has depressed wages, burdened government resources, and acted as a net drain on the economyÃ¢â¬ (Chavez, 47). Thus, if immigration was eliminated, the U.S. would have fewer workers. With a reduction of workers, money would be less therefore, causing the economy to plunge. People come to the U.S. to work and make a living, why would the government want to stop that? Ã¢â¬Å"If Americans would simply cut their own grass, cle an their own houses, and care for their own children, there would be no need for immigrant labors. But even if this were true, the overall economy would hardly benefit from having fewer workersÃ¢â¬ (Chavez, 47). Without immigrants, the economy would not flow smoothly because the workers make the jobs and economy better. Third world immigration is not a threat to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life because immigrants work, immigrants participate, and Ã¢â¬Å"illegal immigration already responds reasonably well to market forcesÃ¢â¬ (Chavez, 50). Immigrants that come into the U.S. are not coming to harm anyone; they come to work and make a living. Hispanics and other races usually want to find a job and the U.S. has good quality jobs. Ã¢â¬Å"Despite the presence in our workforce of millions of illegal immigrants, the U.S. is currently creating slightly more than two million jobs a year and boasts an unemployment rate of 4.7 percent, which is lower than average in each of the past four decadesÃ¢â¬ (Chavez, 47). Therefore, the U.S. consisted of several illegal immigrants that worked. That shows that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve done no harm. Just worked and made a living a majority of the time. They are good workers and as the U.S. generate more than two million jobs each year, the population of immigrantÃ¢â¬â¢s increases. It increases because the jobs increase thus, more immigrants come to the U.S. and work. The more people work, the more new jobs are prepared and the better the economy gets. Immigration and the U.S. :: Legal Issues, Illegal Immigration Since 2001, when September 11th happened, many people in the United States have had a fear of allowing immigrants into the U.S. It went to levels of border control and more. Therefore some judge that immigration is a threat to the U.S. They should not consider that because everything that occurs is not due to immigrants, it is just Ã¢â¬Å"The Realities of ImmigrationÃ¢â¬ (Chavez, 46). The government can stop illegal immigration right now but would it not affect the U.S. more to do so? Ã¢â¬Å"Restrictionists claim that large-scale immigration-legal and illegal-has depressed wages, burdened government resources, and acted as a net drain on the economyÃ¢â¬ (Chavez, 47). Thus, if immigration was eliminated, the U.S. would have fewer workers. With a reduction of workers, money would be less therefore, causing the economy to plunge. People come to the U.S. to work and make a living, why would the government want to stop that? Ã¢â¬Å"If Americans would simply cut their own grass, cle an their own houses, and care for their own children, there would be no need for immigrant labors. But even if this were true, the overall economy would hardly benefit from having fewer workersÃ¢â¬ (Chavez, 47). Without immigrants, the economy would not flow smoothly because the workers make the jobs and economy better. Third world immigration is not a threat to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life because immigrants work, immigrants participate, and Ã¢â¬Å"illegal immigration already responds reasonably well to market forcesÃ¢â¬ (Chavez, 50). Immigrants that come into the U.S. are not coming to harm anyone; they come to work and make a living. Hispanics and other races usually want to find a job and the U.S. has good quality jobs. Ã¢â¬Å"Despite the presence in our workforce of millions of illegal immigrants, the U.S. is currently creating slightly more than two million jobs a year and boasts an unemployment rate of 4.7 percent, which is lower than average in each of the past four decadesÃ¢â¬ (Chavez, 47). Therefore, the U.S. consisted of several illegal immigrants that worked. That shows that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve done no harm. Just worked and made a living a majority of the time. They are good workers and as the U.S. generate more than two million jobs each year, the population of immigrantÃ¢â¬â¢s increases. It increases because the jobs increase thus, more immigrants come to the U.S. and work. The more people work, the more new jobs are prepared and the better the economy gets.
Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller In every family unit or household there are roles that each members have to play. These are there so that each person knows what is expected of them and what to expect from other people. They can be basic roles such as the housework, for example one of a housewife's roles would be to keep the house clean. Or they can be less obvious, for example always being available to offer emotional support and being a friendly shoulder to cry on. These varied roles within a group of people can be recognised and discussed by the members, overt, or it can be that the members themselves don't even realise they exist or that any of these roles are assigned to them within the family group, covert. The roles that each member plays can be dependant on several things, for instance age, experience, sex or even the job that they do. Over time these have changed. In past the roles were rigid and ascribed. Women were expected to be housewives and mothers and men to be the breadwinners being able to support their family financially. Nowadays these set roles have become more blurred and conjugal roles in particular are often joint. However in the 1950's we have to remember that the roles within the family were somewhat archaic and traditional compared to today's society. Biff has several roles like all the members of the Loman family. As an elder brother to Happy he offers him advice and help. The two of them get on very well and have a good relationship. We see this at the start of Act I when the two boys are in their bedroom. They talk candidly and with ease sharing a laugh and joke. They have grown up together and Biff has always supported his brother and helped him out, we learn this from when Biff set Happy up with a girl for his first time. He is a good brother to Happy. Biff's other roles in the family are mostly all set by Willy his father.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Introduction There steps leaders and managers can take to effectively manage diversity and ethics concerns. How a manager effectively manages ethics and diversity, within the organization is directly correlated to the cultural, organizational and external environment influence ethical behavior. One of the stepÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders and managers can take is to incorporate diversity training of the organization. This big step puts the organization on its way toward maintaining a well balanced diverse organizational culture within a company. When it comes to managing diversity in the workplace, there are many attributes that go into a successful training session. (Jones, 2011, p. 164), Ã¢â¬Å"managers can take steps to change attitudes and values and promote the effective management of diversity.Ã¢â¬ Diversity training within an organization is an effective step in changing the values and promotes the effective leadership and management of diversity within the organization is a big step towards mainta ining a well balanced diverse organizational culture within a company. Every leader of an organization implores and implements different diversity training tactics. Some companies have strict diversity training seminars that include power point presentations with a set of rules for do and donÃ¢â¬â¢t. Other organizations implement an more interactive method with diverse groups as a means to also reap the benefits of a diverse workforce: For example: at Ã¢â¬Å"Sodexo and Principle Financial GroupÃ¢â¬ (Jones, 2011 p. 143) Ã¢â¬Å"Sodexo encourages managers like Ron Bond to interact with diverse groups to gain a better appreciation and understanding of their experience.Ã¢â¬ Sodexo acknowledged and understands that when diversity is manage effectively organizations can benefit the organization as a diverse workforce bring, diverse perspectives, points of view, experience and knowledge. Sodexo also provide their employees with extensive diversity training, which encourages managers to be mentors and interact with diverse groups. According to Sodexo web site they Ã¢â¬Å"At Sodexo we work around five pillars Ã¢â¬â gender, generations, disability, ethnical origins and LGBT Ã¢â¬â to foster a culture that embraces differences and celebrates unique ideas, perspectives, experiences and talents.Ã¢â¬ As we strive to challenge stereotypes and disseminate the business case for diversity, we believe it is crucial to train all managers and employees.Ã¢â¬ (Sodex 2012). Ã¢â¬Å"Sodexo USAÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity learning strategy offers awareness training and skills building labs on topics ranging from generations in the workplace to cross-cultural communications. Following the U.S. example, a program designed to heighten awareness, building skills and provide tools for managing within a diverse working environment were launched throughout Europe.Ã¢â¬ (Sodex 2012). An organization such as Deloitte & Touche, Ã¢â¬Å"have instituted a program to encourage minority suppliers to complete for its businesses, and the firm sponsors schools and colleges that supply a stream of well-trained recruits.Ã¢â¬ (Jones, 2011, p. 145). According to GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate website on diversity, Ã¢â¬Å"The Diversity training is designed to ensure our employees have the awareness, skills and knowledge to build and retain the workforce to fuel Google globally. Our diversity education programs includes all aspects surrounding employment that aim to create a culture of inclusion with a focus on improving recruitment strategies and techniques for identifying high-value diverse talentÃ¢â¬ (Google 2010). Google also says that Ã¢â¬Å"At Google, we are committed to a supportive work environment, where employees have the opportunity to reach their fullest potential. Each Googler is expected to do his or her utmost to create a respectful workplace culture that is free of harassment, intimidation, bias and unlawful discrimination of any kindÃ¢â¬ (Google 2010). The website goes on to say that employment at Google is based solely upon individual merit and qualifications directly related to professionalÃ competence and is not based on the basis of Ã¢â¬Å"race, color, religion, veteran status, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy status, sex, gender identity or expression, age, marital status, mental or physical disability, medical condition, sexual orientation or any other characteristics protected by lawÃ¢â¬ (Google 2010). This tells us that Google treats everyone equally, and gives them the same opportunities as everyone else. Equality challenging for diversity stakeholders and executives is getting the leadership team to realize and implement that things have changed harnessing cultural diversity through training increase productivity as such must be a major part of an organization. (Jones, 2011 p. 165) demonstrates number organizations are implementing programs within the organization that requires interaction. One of such organizational program whereby top managers spend time performing the same work duties as employees to improve and understand the challenges employees face was DaVita Inc. DaVita Inc., is a major supplier of kidney dialysis service, in the U.S. and while the three top seniors executives have never worked in a dialysis clinic, exchange work places and now work three days in the clinic. The executives were provided with a better insight and understanding of the nature of the technicians jobs, along with the how emotional the job is and the effects on the technicians. There is no better way to understand diverse group than interaction, joining together at certain times in order to interact and communicate. Leadership of Teams Essential important when implementing a change of the organization core values, and goals is to form a top management team. (Jones, 2011 p. 499). Top management teams are the ones responsible for developing diversity training methods and a strategy to implement the training within the organization in order to achieve the organization goals. Top management teams, are normally compose to a diverse group, with knowledge, expertise and experience in stressing diversity. As cross-functional top management team the members are comprised from the various departments within the organization as a formal group. The top management as a formal group, come together to form a cross-cultural team, by following the five stages of forming a group, as group role is to set the behaviors and task. One of the behaviors for diversity training is that the members of theÃ team to lead by example, in demonstrating ethical and social responsibility. By treating employees based on skills rather than age, sex or race. The integration of leadership exercises in diversity training programs will help employees realize the importance of this attribute within the organization. There are many reasons as to why there must be a diverse team of leadership from top management from different backgrounds, ethnicity, age, gender, or education so that the company can integrate points of views from people from different walks of life. In diversity training, employees would be made to realize that anyone can be a leader regardless of age, sex or race. Leadership skill workshops can be introduced at the work place to educate employees and encourage them to cultivate these skills. Many people confuse management and leadership to be the same thing. There are many people from diverse backgrounds who are managers. Management focuses on establishing detailed plans and schedules for achieving certain results, then providing resources to accomplish the plan. The jobs need to be filled with qualified individuals who understand the direction of the company. Leadership, on the other hand, creates change, often to a dramatic degree. Leadership calls for creating a more efficient or imaginative process for a future vision. While there are some managers who are leaders, there are some who are not. Being both a good manager as well as a good leader is a balance between learned concepts of leadership as well as inborn traits of a leader. One reason that leadership in diversity training is necessary is because people from different backgrounds have different life experiences. These life experiences gives character, and their character is what determines what kind of leader they will end up being. For example, a potential leader will show strong characteristics like drive, energy, determination, self-discipline, willpower and a need for excellence. On the other hand, a person with weak character will show none of these traits. Their traits will be disorganized and random, and they will attract no followers. To be an effective leader, one must be trustworthy and ethical. A supervisor or manager at a company will only be well liked and looked up to if his employees trust him. In any organization, a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s actions set the pace and the way a leader behaves if closely watched and noticed by his employees. This behavior wins trust, loyalty, and ensures the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ continued prosperity. One of the ways to build trust is to display a good sense of character composed of beliefs, values, skills, and traits and to not be discriminatory towards people. In diversity training tactics, it might be helpful to pair those with leadership potential with other leaders from different backgrounds so that they can learn the qualities of being an effective leader from each other. It might also be interesting to note how leaders from different backgrounds and ages tackle problems. There are many ways of b eing a leader, and people with different life experiences will tackle problems in a different way, depending on the situation and their background. For example, leaders like presidents of countries operate differently from leaders of companies. In diversity training, perhaps an exercise could be undertaken that makes the employee chose a scenario and act as a leader in that scenario in order to explore different types of leadership. Diversity training workshops should also focuses on crucial leadership traits that may be of use within the organization. One leadership trait is the trait of courage. Leaders are usually unafraid of taking on challenging tasks. They display a confident calmness when under stress and plan out strategies in order to overcome obstacles in their path. People from minority backgrounds should take particular interest in this trait because they are working to get ahead in a world where they are a minority. Another example of a leadership trait is justice. Good leaders treat everyone fairly and display empathy by being sensitive to the feelings, values, interests, and well-being of others. They are non-prejudiced towards their employees and clients and make everyone feel like their voices are being heard. For example, a manager at a board meeting hears both sides of a story before deciding on a course of action. Leadership seminars are particularly important in companies with many diverse employees because leaders build a foundation in their organization, as well as build a sense of trust with their employees. In a company, the leader or manager has to make sure the culture of the organization is positive and that the work flow is productive. The most important person in shaping an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is the leader of the organization. A leader at the executive level is the main source for the creation and implementing the culture and everything it stands for. The leader originally decides what the core values of the organization will be, how they will go about their business and what rules they will follow. He is in charge of shaping the culture and managing it. An understanding of the diversity within the organization and the knowledge of how to mold different people together it is a necessary skill for leaders trying to achieve a strategic outcome. Along with the diversity and culture of an organization, potential leaders must also pay attention to the climate of an organization. The climate is the feel of the organization as well as the individual and shared perceptions and attitudes of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s members. The climate of an organization represents the beliefs about the vibe or feel of the workplace by the employees. This individual perception of the way the organization feels comes from what the people believe about the activities that occur in the organization. These activities influence both individual and team motivation and satisfaction and the employee questions the actions and principles of the leader. These directly relate to diversity because sometimes people are unsure of how to treat other at times due to the difference in religious beliefs or opinions. If a leader outlines a general code of conduct for all employees that takes into account everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and expectation, a negative climate situation can be avoided. The climate of an organization should bring about a feeling of assurance to the employees; so that they know that they are doing things right and behaving appropriately. Leading Change and Managing Conflict Managing conflicts within the organization today requires the type of leader that is able to communicate and collaboration when working with a diverse workforce. Conflict is a an inevitable part of any organization, as goals of shareholders, managers and employees are more than often incompatible. (Jones, 2011, p. 566). When there is a crisis within an organization, a leader needs to be able to rise to the occasion, and bring out extraordinary leadership qualities by first determining what type of conflict is involved such interpersonal, intra group, inter group and interorganizational, understanding these various types of conflict and how they differ helps a manager deal with the conflict. Moreover a manager needs to understand the source of the conflict, whether it seem from differentÃ goals and time horizons, overlapping authority, and/or task interdependencies. When a manager is able to discern the type of conflict and source he can focus on a fair consist distribution of justi ce equability. By cultivating leadership skills in employees, people from different cultures and backgrounds begin to trust each other because they are all leaders and they view themselves as equal to one another. The leadership aspect of diversity training should also outline how to be a respectful, unbiased leader when it comes to other cultures and ages within the organization. Employees observing a leader do not look at the traits or attributes of a leader, rather, they observe what the leader does in order to decide whether their supervisor really is a good leader or not. They use this observation to tell whether the leader is an honorable person or a self-serving person who discriminates against other people or misuses their authority in order to get a promotion. Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. On self-serving leaders, often give employees Ã¢â¬Å"The feeling of being separate, which is characteristic of leaders, is different from narcissism. The leader is aware of boundaries and distinguishes the inner and outer worlds, fantasy and reality, self and other people. Career-oriented managers are more likely to exhibit the effects of narcissism than leaders. While busily adapting to their environment, managers are narrowly engaged in maintaining their identity and self-esteem through others, whereas leaders have self-confidence growing out of the awareness of who they are and the visions that drive them to achieve Diversity training companies also helps cultivate relationships between the people of the organization. Organizational conflicts is a discord that arises when there is a diverse workforce who are incompatible, where goals, values and interest differ, which cause blocks and attempts to thwart each other work performance. Diversity training that address conflict management strategies focuses on conflict resolution diversity awareness, sources of conflicts, job rotation, and temporary assignments. These strategies focus on the whole organization. A Top management team position, as the leader has to make sure his employees are working togeth er as a team. Doing their share of the work, getting along with people and working well with others are all part of teamwork. A leader or manager has to make sure thatÃ his employees are not only meeting these goals, but also motivating them to go one step ahead of these goals to increase productivity. Introduction of these concepts in relation to diversity will help people from different backgrounds work together towards a common goal. Teamwork training exercises in diversity training are important for employees who want to advance to a leadership position, as teamwork is one of the key things managers look at when determining leadership potential. Employees with leadership potential see team effectiveness as a leadership opportunity. They realize that they will achieve more by working through and with others, that they will get more done with the active support of colleagues. These exercises will also help to harbor good relations between people from different walks of life. Finally, leadership seminars motivate minorities to do better. In recent times, minority employees have been underestimated when it comes to handing out leadership positions. One reason for this is that some minorities do not think that they are capable of being leaders because there have been so few minority leaders in their organization. They do not go for higher positions because they think that they cannot get them. By organizing leadership seminars, minorities can see that they are good enough to be leaders because they are not different from any other race, culture, gender or age group around them. The leadership seminars will help them learn about their own skills as well as inculcate new ones within them so that they go for their goals. CONCLUSION Leadership is an important attribute that should be more focused on in diversity training workshops. Leadership leads to teamwork which is an important factor in an organization. Making sure that employees get along and that no one is discriminated against is a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s job. If everyone is taught about leadership and how it works, people from different backgrounds will gain the confidence and skills required to advance within the organization. Leadership seminars will also help to inspire people and prevent a negative cultural climate from occurring between people from different backgrounds. Activities like leadership role switching and scenario leadership can help cultivate teamwork and leadership among employees. Bibliography Jones, Gareth R. and George, Jennifer M. Contemporary Management. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Irwin, N.Y., N.Y., 2011. Sodex (2012) Sodex and Principle Financial Group. Retrieved from http://www.sodexo.com/en/commitments/diversity-inclusion/actions/training.aspx July 20, 2012 Google (2010). Google Diversity and Inclusion. Retrieved from on July 20, 2012.