Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Psychology Dream Analysis

As I was sitting down, I notice d three people that looked like teenagers walk in. Everyone in that dream looked boring and dread rye, lacking much color, all except this one girl. This girl was wearing a blue shirt. It didn't take 10 Eng for my 5 year old self to recognize this girl in a very strange way. As kept watching her I area sized she was an older version of myself. She had the same long curly brown hair, and green e yes. Younger me continued sitting in the corner watching older me. I saw her sit on the one side e of the booth by herself while her male and female friend sat on the opposite side of her. Fro m far away heard older me say to her friends â€Å"he said he would be here, he is going to be here s non. Don't worry. A server went up to the three of them and asked if they wanted to order food and the two friends said yes and ordered and older me said she would wait for â€Å"him† till he came t order her food. Little me realized she was talking about her boyfr iend and how he was soups seed to meet with them for dinner and he still had not shown up. Older me called â€Å"him† and he did not answer. Older Sabina kept getting more and more anxious telling her friends â€Å"he isn't here! He is not responding to me, where could he be? It has been a few hours! I can't believe he forgot† Among this, the younger Sabina started seeing everything In a time lapse, where the re was no more dialogue after that. Everyone started moving much faster. People were comic Eng in and out, bovine around, talking, eating.Before knew it almost everyone was gone, in clouding older Sprain's friends and all the other customers in the restaurant had left and the e manager or owner had locked up and turned all the lights off and went, leaving older and younger r me in the room. Older Sabina did not acknowledge my younger self nor did she even see me. There was a single light on older Sabina and her table. Older Sabina was very quiet and looked very pe nsive. All of a sudden there was a light on the complete opposite side of the room, older r me noticed and darted walking over to it. Little Sabina then became one with older Sabina a ND I was no longer on the sidelines, was right there.Under the light there was a desk like piece of furniture and on that desk there was a picture frame. Picked up the picture frame only to see it was black and white photo of a teenage couple at the beach. The girl had a big floppy sunhat and sunglasses and a polka dot one piece and the man had a regular battings on. They looked like they were in the middle of laughing. I flipped the picture frame and saw a note written on the back of the photo. It read â€Å"Sabina, This is a photo of my parents when they were younger. It make s me think of us. † Confused I stood back, and looked to the right of where the frame stood and saw a pill bottle. I picked it up and the bottle was completely empty.I turned the bottle around and on that side there was a nother note that read† Dear Sabina, I'm so sorry I couldn't be with you tonight, I couldn't make it. I'm so sorry I had to do this. † I began to scream and panic an d I threw the pill bottle against the wall and looked around for someone to be there, and no on e was there. I was lone, in the dark without any light besides the one shining on the desk full of horrid things, to guide me. I still remember I woke up I screamed and began to bawl, I ran to m y mother's room and told her what I dreamt. Will never forget how horrifying and painful that dream was and how hurtful it still is thinking about It. In the dream, the dreamer was younger at first, observing an older self inside of a restaurant.Seeing an older self symbolizes that maybe the dreamer is going t wrought cometh ins, and moving on from something. Being inside of a restaurant symbolizes that t e dreamer may be upset and is in need of emotional nourishment. When the dreamer observed that her older self was wearin g blue and everyone else was vague and bleak can be associated with the dreamer and views of herself. The dreamer wearing blue may be upset, or depressed. The p art where the older version of the dreamer was waiting for someone( boyfriend) to show up show s that she is very dependent on this person and finds them extremely important. It can also gig unify that one is waiting for something important or significant to happen.In the dream, after everyone was bovine around and the restaurant had been locked up and the older version of the dreamers self was all alone it symbolizes that she may feel abandoned or left in an encounter liable situation. When there was a sudden light across the room and the dreamer approached it and saw the black and white picture frame, it symbolizes a Wish to keep things the same and bee Eng afraid of change. Having the photo be black and white symbolizes that the dreamer may be fee ling confused, blank, depressed or lost. Something very tough and confusing may be going 0 n in the dreamer's fife. The note written on the back of the picture frame can be symbolic for a m usage that the dreamer has to know and figure out.When the dreamer stumbled backwards and into the darkness again it signifies that again, the dreamer is in a whole fit of confusion n and anger with a situation. In the dream, when the dreamer saw the pill bottle and realized it w as empty and saw the note on the back signifies that there may be something that needs to chaw Eng that isn't being accepted. The fact that the person the dreamer was waiting for and never shoo wed up. Along with he empty pill bottle and note that says the boy could not make it with an app logy shows that the dreamer may feel wronged by someone or a situation and that the death of t he boy shows that the dreamer may be in an upsetting situation experiencing a form of loss. O feel like this dream was certainly an accurate representation Of my life at that place in time. My parents had just divor ced and my mom took me with her when SSH e left my father. I was young and my father really was everything to me. At this point I had not s en him for a little while and it was the end of life as I knew it. I think seeing an older self was SSH owing that was going through something. Being with people, and then being left alone really r presents how I felt I was being abandoned and left behind by my father, because I didn't undo restart it was for my benefit that my mother left him. It really was an excruciating pain to deal with as a child especially not seeing someone I spent much of my time with as a child.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Manager †managerial decision making Essay

1. What assumptions can you make about managerial decision making, as it relates to the millennial generation, from the case? My assumptions, enroll students are rating professors from good to bad making it easier for future student to get always with easier classes. 2. Did Tom and Alex follow a logical and rational managerial decision-making process in determining their class schedules? Why or why not? Yes, Tom and Alex are paying for school, therefor they want the best class and great teacher. Tom and Alex note the numerical values representing overall quality and easiness of each professor they are researching, and make their decision based on these numbers alone. 3. Identify the group influence that the information provided on places on Tom and Alex. The students were rating the professors from overall rating, total rating, easiness, and hot? Overall quality and easiness have numerical values from 0 to 5.5 being the highest. This information help Tom and Alex to choose professor and make their schedules. 4. Describe the types of interpersonal influence that the information provided on places on Tom and Alex. By visiting the web site they can click on the name of any professors and see their rating in more detail. Rating from overall quality, helpfulness, clarity, easiness, and hotness. 5. What influence do consumer ratings that fall either above or below the norm have on your managerial decision-making process? For example, when a professor (or an product) is rated with 3 stars, what strength do you place on the few individual reviews that rate them with 1 star or 5 stars?

Monday, July 29, 2019

Taget market Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Taget market - Essay Example on of Apple’s target market is different from the competitors, because focus of the company is to target end users while other companies focus on targeting the overall market. The business plan of many organizations is based on market size, but there are companies like Apple, which realizes that people are the one who accepts or rejects any product. The selected target market of Apple has become so successful that many organizations are now willing to buy products of Apple, as they have realized that Apple has been able to define the needs of their customers on the basis of differentiation strategy. For the convenience of its users, Apple has converted complicated technology in a convenient technology, and this is the reason that millions of people around the world are attracted towards the products of Apple. The article has extended concepts that are discussed in the class that it is important for the companies to select appropriate target market for their products or service and without selecting proper target market, products of the company cannot become successful. Apple has tried to change concept of target market in such a way that company do not consider market size while selecting target market instead, the company aims to focus on targeting end user. This strategy of Apple has helped me to understand the significance of targeting end user, and I will try to understand needs of the end users in my professional career

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Costs associated with occupational and corporate crime Essay

Costs associated with occupational and corporate crime - Essay Example Income tax violation is a popular white-collar crime. According to an article in New York Times, tax evasion costs governments around the globe more than $3.1 trillion annually. Such a whopping loss of more than $3.1 trillion in annual revenue is a very big issue, yet it is exceedingly hard to catch white-collar criminals. According to a report published by the World Bank in 2011, more than 5.1% of global GDP never reaches the government offices in the form of taxes. Europe is currently facing a crisis because of this rampant tax evasion. The highest amount of tax revenue is lost by the US, about $337 billion. The US is followed by South America and Italy (Werdigier). Embezzlement is a kind of occupational crime and research claims that â€Å"the annual cost of embezzlement is 12.42 billion dollars† (Zarka). Yet, research suggests that the highest costs are associated with white-collar crimes. For example, it is claimed that â€Å"the American business community lost $50 bill ion in 1980 to white-collar crime† (Eitzen cited in Long), which is more than 10 times the costs associated with all street crimes. These are just cost estimates because truth is that occupational and corporate crimes cannot be accurately measured. White-collar criminals are hard to catch because of their high position which is why jails are crowded with socially and economically disadvantaged offenders who have committed some kind of low-class street crime. Many problems are encountered by researchers who try to uncover costs associated with occupational and corporate crimes. It is always easier to estimate costs associated with street crimes because people behind these crimes have no occupational or corporate background. These are jobless people typically belonging to poor class. But, the problem with occupational and corporate criminals is that the higher professions and

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Structured Essays Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 words

Structured Essays - Essay Example The fear of a German uprising was no longer in the minds of the French as all the land that Germany was required to hand over was returned; the most important regions being Alsace and Lorraine. Germany's army was down sized to a maximum of 100,000 men; they were denied the use of tanks. The air force was disbanded and the navy was only allowed to staff and operate six ships; however, no submarines were allowed to remain operational. The land fifty kilometres east of the Rhine was pronounced a demilitarised zone, where no soldier with a weapon could enter. Overseas land previously owned by Germany was given to different European countries. The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League of Nations. One of the more important outcomes was the "War Guilt Clause" that required Germany to take on full responsibility for starting the war. This was important as it would show the world France's reason for participation in the war was only to defend against the German attacks. This also meant that Germany would have to pay reparations to France for the physical damage caused during the war. Wilson was very pleased because as a result of the Paris Peace Conference his vision of the League of Nations had become a reality. ... He said as much: "To promote international co-operation and to achieve international peace and security." (Wilson) The cost of creating the League was losing his other 13 original ideology points to gain the global support that was necessary to start the League and make it a success. As the post-war world was in struggle of finding peace, there were a lot of countries intrigued by the international organisation that promised to bring the world peace. Wilson was of a peace loving nature and was clearly angered by the great number of restrictions Germany had to agree to in the Treaty as well as all the reparations they had to make. The harsh conditions that were imposed on Germany embarrassed and shamed Wilson. Nevertheless, he was very satisfied with the start of the League of Nations. One fact to be noted is that reparations to the United States were not mandated in the Treaty. It is true that the losses of the United States were not on the same scale as Britain and France because of their late entrance into the war. Lloyd-George was perhaps the least satisfied with the final terms of the treaty because of Clemenceau's persistence to bankrupt the German economy. As Lloyd-George's key point was to keep Germany's economy as stable as possible so as to increase European market strength, he was not happy with the end result. Most people in Great Britain had wished for revenge on Germany, and indeed received satisfaction as many of Germany's colonies went to Lloyd-George such as Egypt and parts of China, including important, major trading ports. These acquisitions greatly enriched great Britain's economy, a large amount of wealth coming from the

Zines. Zine World Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Zines. Zine World - Essay Example Zines covers culture remote the corporate restrictions. They evaluate and criticize other zines, books, comics, newsletters, one-shots, videos, posters, spoken word recordings, or anything else in almost any media on any subject. Their focus is on material that's not available through normal commercial channels, so readers find reviews of hundreds of hand-made magazines, newsletters, and books you won't find anywhere else. Every review includes ordering information, so reacders can get this material direct from its publishers. Zine World is an example of a zine as well as Punk Zine. In addition to the reviews, Zine World covers news nobody else does: When publishers are brought up on charges for what they've published, when kids are kicked out of school for creating a zine, they try to spread the word, letting our readers know what they can do to help. In every issue of Zine World, small publishers let each other know which stores and distributors are trustworthy, and which aren't. They run free announcements about upcoming events, and other underground projects worthy of readers' support. They offer free classified ads for DIY or counterculture projects (up to 50 words; limit one free ad per issue). (Bartel, 2004) If the writers published something, and they are wondering how to get the word out to potential readers, these budding writers can consider sending it to Zine World. They are interested in almost anything that isn't corporate-controlled crap. Zine Wold's pledge -- to themselves, to their readers -- is that they'll give everything a fair read and an honest review. Their circulation is tiny, but they have been told that a good review can result in dozens of orders. The Punk zine offers discussions about rock music from its origins and up to the artists. They believe that the origins of Rock music can be explored through the attempts to understand the natural development of musical styles. A musical genre such as rock and roll does not simply come out of the music scene. It evolved from the moment a performance introduces a breakthrough which the audience perceived and admired due to its uniqueness. The best thing about rock music, according to Punk Zine, is that it is not limited to being a musical genre but some even consider it as a way of life, it is also known as a movement, a lifestyle, a culture and has the possibility of being an ideology. Rock and roll is a tradition and in its many faces can be considered a belief system. The premise of the work in the Punk Zine is that rock 'n' roll matters, and that it means what it says. It seems that rock 'n' roll music has seldom been given its due as an art form, that it is somehow relegated to a category of less "mature" or "serious" artistic pursuits by the media and the intellectual community (whatever that is). Some of their critics use the generic term "Pop" to refer to any popular music, including all contemporary rock musicians, as if the fact of rock 'n' roll's immense commercial success implies that it cannot really be taken seriously alongside, say, classical music, or even Jazz. In defiance of this trend (Zines), and in view of the apparent retreats from idealism that have permeated the past decade or two, these zines celebrates creative writing as a legitimate art form, and more, as a strong current in American and world culture, which contains a central

Friday, July 26, 2019

Legal Aspects of Business Decisions Unit 2 IP Research Paper

Legal Aspects of Business Decisions Unit 2 IP - Research Paper Example Sturge Ltd to honor obligation amounts to violation of Ohio’s statutory and property law. According to Steinberg (1993), the court’s holding asserted that the Ohio Blue Sky Laws in subject were not applicable since international transactions at that time were not explicitly covered within the laws. The plaintiff, West Shell Jr. and the defendant R.W. Sturge Ltd were locked in a case, which was eventually brought to conclusion by Hamilton County Court in December 08, 1993. With respect to the presiding judges, West Shell Jr. et al were supposed to be refunded all monetary resources that they incurred as loses after investing in unregistered securities. According to Steinberg (1993), the court established that the defendant R.W. Sturge Ltd et al made a coalition with other third parties in selling illegal stocks and securities to the plaintiff. Therefore, R.W. Sturge Ltd et al was liable for refunding money used to purchase securities as well as payment of any attorney fees incurred by the plaintiff throughout the case. With respect to procedural construct of the case, British law asserts that any insurance and investment premium received by underwriters of a financial company is automatically placed in a trust fund. Any profits realized from a trust fund are released to the underwriters association, upon which the underwriters will extend the proceeds to investors. In this case, R.W. Sturge Ltd failed to honor its agreement by selling illegitimate securities to the plaintiff. Consequently, the plaintiff argued that the agreement binding the sale of securities was void under the Ohio Blue Sky Law. With respect to the legal background, Ohio Blue Sky Laws states that all public transactions brought into Ohio are accorded protection from fraudulent contracts and misrepresentation of facts during an agreement. According to Steinberg (1993), this means that Ohio Blue Sky Laws protect investors against gullibility and mischievousness of international

Thursday, July 25, 2019

A marketing analysis of Procter & Gamble Research Paper

A marketing analysis of Procter & Gamble - Research Paper Example .. 6. Brand Management at P&G†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦... 7. Competition†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8. Current Market Share†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 9. Individual Product Branding†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 10. Extending the Product Life Cycle of Existing Products†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 11. Summary/Conclusions†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 12. Recommendations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 13. Personal Learning through the Study†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Works Cited Appendices A marketing analysis of Procter & Gamble 1. Purpose/Objective of Study The purpose of the research study is to examine the marketing prowess and strategies of the multi-national company Procter & Gamble (P&G), a business reporting $10.75 billion in net income in 2012. How Procter & Gamble is able to accomplish such significant revenues is likely attributable to not only the relevancy and sustainability of its products, but to its marketing prowess to gain consumer attention in multiple international and domestic markets. Th e objective of the study is to determine what aspects linked to marketing theory and practices contribute successfully to P&G’s capabilities to sustain its business longevity. 2. Executive Overview Research has identified that P&G is considerably competent in understanding how to market its products successfully to consumer segments with profit potential. Through a blend of psychographic segmentation and lifestyle-centric targeting and using quality-centric positioning tactics, the business is able to create a successful brand management strategy. Research has indicated that Procter & Gamble not only understands consumer behavior, but is able to translate this important knowledge successfully in its diverse portfolio of brands. Based on the findings, it is recommended that Procter & Gamble conduct further market research to gain a new perspective on the social condition for the contemporary buyer segments. 3. History and background of P&G Headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, Pr octer & Gamble was founded in 1837 by William Procter and James Gamble, a candle-making expert and soap producer in early America. By the time of the Civil War, P&G sales had topped $1 million. In today’s economy, adjusting for inflation between 1865 and 2012, this would be equivalent to $14.8 million (Friedman 1). During the Civil War, P&G was contracted to supply the Northern Army with much-needed candles and soap supplies, which provided P&G with much more visibility across the country. By 1911, Procter & Gamble could no longer sustain the high national demand for its products produced in Ohio, requiring development of new manufacturing and logistics centers across the country. Shortly thereafter, the business began producing Crisco which was a revolutionary food shortening product made from vegetable oil rather than the traditional method of using fats extracted from slaughtered animals. While P&G still continued to focus on household soap products, Procter & Gamble diver sified into foods production that drove much of its strategic focus through the 1970s. Procter & Gamble also began sponsoring radio programs with the advent of the consumer radio network, which coined the phrase

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Discuss The Controversy Surrounding The Chapman Brothers Rectified Essay

Discuss The Controversy Surrounding The Chapman Brothers Rectified Works of Francisco Goyas Disasters of War Series - Essay Example The best in Goya came during the period of war in Spain and this shows that wars really bring out the best in men. The controversy that surrounded the rectification of his work by the Goya Brothers was borne out of the love that this critics had for this great artist and his art work. The Chapman brothers have been accused of defacing the etchings they purchased from Goya’s Disasters of War as the Chapman Brothers’ Insult to Injury had some funny faces that made their collections controversial in nature. The Brothers have been accused of intentionally defacing the appearance of Goya’s Disasters of War and some have even said that they used their Insult to Injury to mock Goya’s works. Although the Chapman Brothers have claimed that Francisco Goya was their model, the fact however remains that the rectification of his Disasters of War actually disproves this notion if one considers the fact that they tried to transform the work of their so called ‘mode l’ in order to produce their own work that is different from his work in several ways (Chapman). The Chapman Brothers succeeded in transforming Goya’s work into sheer pornographic Surrealism but it should be underscored that Goya was more into Romanticism. The issue that has been raised by the critics is that the Chapman Brothers bought a set of 83 etchings from Goya’s Disasters of War and vandalised it. The critics have claimed that the Chapman Brothers were aware that this great art work by Goya is one of the most venerated series of prints in existence (Mey, 2007, p.1). The Chapman Brothers have not only made attempts to erase the memories of the artists from the hearts of men, but they have also destroyed and obscured a great artwork, thus attracting lots of controversies to themselves and their rectified art work. Controversy based on Semiotics The Chapman Brothers unscrupulously rectified the works of Francisco Goya’s Disaster of War Series, which G oya himself used to represent the horrors of the war between 1810 and 1820. In the original work of Goya, he used symbols of humans as an allegory to the sufferings of humans during the war and to express his dissatisfaction and horror at the disgusting lunacy of war. In rectifying the works of Francisco Goya’s Disaster of War Series, the Chapman Brothers used cartoon images to represent the sufferings of humans that Goya was trying to depict through his images and the fact that Chapman derailed from the original message of Goya made people to criticize the revised works of the Chapman Brothers. â€Å"Typical in their broad-brush detestation of Enlightenment tradition are Jake and Dinos Chapman, postmodern artists most famous for ‘Insult to Injury’, their vandalized or ‘rectified’ appropriation of Goya’s Disaster of War prints, in which they pasted fiendish clown and puppy heads over every victim’s grimace....† (Broderick, 2005, p.9). The controversy that surrounded the works of the Chapman Brothers was caused by the cartoon images that they superimposed in their work as they used the symbols of puppies or clowns as figures to represent the human sufferings that Goya intended to show people through his Disaster of War

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Review of one article Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Review of one article - Essay Example onal field by offering people a chance at an affordable education regardless of age, but have also raised the bar of academic performance simply by allowing the students to make their own mistakes and learn on their own with mere â€Å"guidance† from their online educators. Indeed, education has reached a focal point where traditional educations might see the emerging educational platforms as a form of â€Å"creative Destruction† while the forward thinkers and future innovators see an avenue of education that will allow for much more development and freedom of learning for the students, at a far lower cost that normally expected. Therefore, it is not right to tag the term â€Å"Creative Destruction† on online education and its supporters. For as long as people the world over have a chance to access higher education at a cost affordable to them, which also allows them the personal growth and learning space needed to become a success in the 21st century, then the objectives of higher education are met. True there is a need for a governing body in order to standardize the online educational process,but that will not erase the fact future business leaders and innovators are fast coming from online rather than traditional educational

Monday, July 22, 2019

Importance of Community Development in the Middle East Important to the U.S. Essay Example for Free

Importance of Community Development in the Middle East Important to the U.S. Essay The Middle East is the region which extends from southwestern Asia to northeastern Africa, though its boundaries are not very specific. It is the historic origin of some major religions that we have today. These include Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Yezidi, Bahai faith among others. The Middle East came to be recognized as a single region after the First World War, during which the Ottoman Empire was divided into countries that currently comprise the Middle East. In 1948, Israel was established and joined the group of countries that make up the Middle East. The countries that are in the Middle East include Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Yemen, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates among others (Eur, 2002). The Middle East is however a region that has always been a centre of world affairs both on a positive and a negative note. There have been various ups and downs in the history of the Middle East; some of which recur to date. Some of these events have brought about an international outcry and eventually caused the calling forth of immediate reforms in some of the countries that comprise the Middle East. Some of the reforms brought to the attention of these countries are issues pertaining community development, which is vital for the growth of these countries. Community development in this region is aimed at mitigating the wrangles and wars that have been there in this region and make its occupants concentrate on issues that would be beneficial to their lives. Community development is the enhancement or the nurturing of some specific values within the society that bring about some positive change in the way that people in this particular society live and co-ordinate their lives. Community development is very important in any community because any improvement within any given society and mainly comes about as a result of cooperation between the members of these societies. It is through community development that acquirement, exploitation, and equal distribution of resources is accomplished. It is what enables a society to go forward and have all the amenities that are necessary for life (Bayat, 2002). The international community has been on the forefront advocating for community development in the region. This would see to it that the region develops economically and that its ties with other nations improve. The countries located in the Middle East dominate the world’s list of major oil producers. Most of the economies of these countries are highly driven by oil. The world’s economy is to some extent controlled by the prices of oil and this means that the Middle East bears a hand in whichever way that the oil prices sway. A reduction in oil production or an increment in the prices of oil per barrel would be a major blow to the economies of the world especially those of countries that do not produce oil or do not produce oil that can support their enormous populations. As a result of this, many of the world’s powers have always tried to have an edge over the countries in the Middle East in order to curb this (Wright, 1999). The United States of America is one of the countries that has always wanted there to be some stability and community development in the Middle East though most of these nations are opposed to its views. Many are even reluctant to cooperate because the United States is not mainly an Islamic state. The Middle East has always been marred by some wars and other cold wars. The United States itself was behind the 2003 Iraq invasion that saw to the total overhaul of the Iraqi government. Many local and international communities have always pointed fingers at the United States for such a miscalculation and therefore rapid community development in this region would help quench the guilt that the United States feels for doing this. Little else can be done other than trigger community development that would see Iraq have its economic prosperity back. This way, the United States can restore its sanctity too. The United States of America’s administration has therefore embarked on a plan to bring forth community development in Iraq. This is done through the providence of funds to kick off this process. Terrorism has been one of the menaces that have posed one of the greatest risks to the United States of America and its citizens. The United States government has been doing all within its means in order to eradicate terrorism and bring to book those involved. Terrorism has long been perceived as being endorsed and triggered by some Islamic extremists believed to be trained in some secret places within the Middle East. Therefore, if the United States figures that if it is able to bring forth some community development in the Middle East, they can be able to control or eventually eradicate terrorism. Some of the most wanted terrorists are believed to be harbored in the Middle East and some are even believed to be under the protection of some Middle East governments. The United States has even offered to train the Afghanistan police and military in order to control the levels of terrorism and fight drug cartels. Afghanistan is believed to be one of the world’s top producers of cocaine. The advent of nuclear weapons poses a major threat to the world’s population if these weapons are not handled with care. Countries ought to obtain approval from the United Nations before they embark on developing nuclear weapons and war-heads or any similar venture, failure to which some severe measures can be taken. Iran has some nuclear power stations which are operational though the United States and other powerful countries believe that Iran is developing nuclear weapons. The United States has taken a firm stand against this and has sought some diplomatic positions with regard to this issue. Significant community development across the Middle East would see to it that such problems are dealt with easily which would actually be an advantage to the United States on its take on global peace. The Israeli-Palestinian war has been raging for several decades. Israel is located amidst countries which are its sworn enemies. Many of the contentious issues between Israel and its neighbors have eventually resulted in wars that have left many dead and injured. The United States is Israel’s sworn ally and therefore a blow to Israel means a major blow to the United States though indirectly. As a result of this, the United States has always acted in the favor of Israel. The idea of community development would eventually lead to unity in the region and thus remove the burden of sporadic wars from Israel and promote economic growth in the region. There are various leftist terrorist groups that have been formed in opposition of Israel. These include Hamas and Hezbollah and the return of peace to the region would see to it that these groups cease to exist as they are a threat to peace in the region. This would further improve the United States’ war against terrorism (Thomas, 1998). Finally, the United States of America envisions economic allies from the Middle East, which hosts some of the fastest growing economies in the world. An alliance between the United States and the Middle East would see to the growth of the economic interests of both parties. Economic enhancement means more power and this is exactly this would translate to the United States. Economic empowerment is of paramount importance especially in this period when the world is experiencing a financial recession. Economic empowerment would therefore be a major boost to the United States and any other interested parties. The Middle East is one of the regions that the business interests of Americans are not appreciated and therefore mending this would change the equation. Countries such as the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Jordan have incorporated tourism into their economies and this is bound to improve their relationship with other countries. Egypt has been one of the key factors that have made peace-brokerage possible in the Middle East. Egypt is an Islamic state that is not hard lined towards general hatred towards the west. This gives it an edge towards dealing with the Middle East crises and dangerous wars. It is through Egypt that some international communities have voiced their concerns. It is through Egypt that some wars have been stopped through cease-fires; such as the recent Israeli-Palestinian war that was showcased along the Gaza strip. Egypt itself is strategically placed and is allied to many of the nations in the Middle East. They are therefore bound to listen to Egypt when it comes to negotiating a particular situation. As a result of this, many of the western countries ally themselves to Egypt in a bid to broker peace in the Middle East. Egypt therefore plays a very vital role when it comes to dealing with the nations of the Middle East because of its neutrality and similarity to these nations despite being an Islamic state. It is a peaceful sovereign state that is deemed reliable by many western countries when it comes to dealing with the Middle East. As a result, community development is vital as a solution to the problems that currently affect the Middle East nations. The Middle East is in a quagmire of woes at the moment and a solution that would bring about peace and stability in the region would all the same transform this region into an economic powerhouse which would be a big boost to the global financial market altogether. Community development, to say the least, is one of the keys to peace and stability in this region. References: Bayat, A. , (2002), Activism And Social Development In The Middle East, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Issue 34:1:1-28, Cambridge University Press, Retrieved on 29th April 30, 2009 from: http://journals. cambridge. org/action/displayAbstract? fromPage=onlineaid=105825 Eur, (2002), The Middle East and North Africa 2003, Europa Publications Staff, ISBN 1857431324, 9781857431322, Published by Routledge, Wright J. W. , (1999), The Political Economy of Middle East Peace: The Impact of Competing Trade Agendas, ISBN 0415183952, 9780415183956, Published by Routledge Thomas R. M. , (1998), Conducting educational research: a comparative view, ISBN 0897896092, 9780897896092, Published by Greenwood Publishing Group

Financial Highlights of John Lewis Performance Essay Example for Free

Financial Highlights of John Lewis Performance Essay Sales Sales are the activity within a business for the purchases of products and service. This is also the operating revenues that is earned by the company  by selling their products or services. Last year, the business was involved in an accounting scandal, and saw the departure of some senior executives. However the retail giant, which has more than 3,300 stores in the UK, had a better Christmas than expected. The sales over the holiday period were down just 0.3 percent on the year before and up 0. 1% if fuel sales are included. Overall, comparable sales for the three months to the beginning of January were down by 2.9%.Tescos chief executive, Dave Lewis, said the firm was facing the reality of the situation and was seeing the benefits of listening to our customers. Revenue Revenue are the amount of money that the business receives during a specific period which includes the discounts and deductions that are for returned merchandise Revenue is calculated by multiplying the price at which goods or services are sold by the number of units or amount sold. Tesco’s revenue increased from the years 2010 to 2011 from  £57,502m to  £61,174m. This infers to us that there would be an increase in the corporations stockholders equity and its assets. The revenues will increase the retained earnings section of stockholders equity. The assets that usually increase are cash or accounts receivable. Conversely within the years of 2012 to 2013 the business revenue decreased from  £64,541m to  £63,967. This indicates to us that the business reduced their pricing. However within 2013 and 2014 there was an increase within the revenue figures from  £63,967 to  £64,149. Profit Profit is the money that the business makes after accounting for all the expenses. This is a financial benefit that is realized when the amount of revenue gained from the business activity exceeds the expenses, costs and taxes needed to sustain the activity. Any profit that is gained goes to the businesss owners, who may or may not decide to spend it on the business. Tescos Britain’s biggest retailer Shares fell as much as 17 per cent to their lowest in around 14 years as it said trading profits for the year ending February 2015 would not exceed  £1.4bn. This is  £500m below current market forecasts of  £1.9bn. Debt Debt is the amount of money borrowed by one person from another. Many  corporations and individuals use debt as a method for making large purchases that they could not afford under normal circumstances. A debt arrangement gives the borrowing individual permission to borrow money under the condition that it is to be paid back at a later date, usually with interest. Within Tesco the debt decreased within the years of 2010 to 2013 from  £14.0b to  £13.5b because the business is paying off debts owed regularly which results in a positive cash flow. On the other hand the business debt increased within the years 2013 to 2014 from  £13.5b to  £14.5b. This is for the reason that the business are not paying off the liabilities that are owed. Pension A pension is a type of retirement plan, usually tax exempt, where an employer makes contributions toward a pool of funds set aside for an employees future benefit. The funds is then invested on the employees behalf, allowing the employee to receive benefits upon retirement. Philip Clarke and Laurie Mcllwee are members of the Tesco PLC pension scheme, which provides a pension up to two-thirds of base salary on retirement, normally at the age 60, dependent on service. Within the organisation each year’s pension earned before 1 June 2012 will be increased up to a maximum 5%. Turnover Turnover is the number of times an asset is replaced during a financial period. This would be the number of shares traded for a period as a percentage of the total shares in a portfolio or of an exchange. As we can see above, on Tesco profit and loss sheet there was an increase in the turnover from the years 2010 to 2011 from  £56910.0m to  £60455.0m. This indicates to us that Tesco has strong sales within this year as the business is re-stocking cash quickly and has a lower risk of becoming stuck with obsolete inventory. On the other hand within the years 2012 and 2013 there was a decrease in figures from  £63916.0m to  £63406.0m. This tells that the business is carrying too much inventory which suggest poor inventory  management and low sales.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The Coral Reef Bleaching Environmental Sciences Essay

The Coral Reef Bleaching Environmental Sciences Essay Coral are very old animals that have evolved over millions of years to become reef-building organisms. On Earth, coral reefs are among the most biologically diverse places to be found. They may only cover a small percent of the ocean, about .2 percent, but more than 25 percent of the marine life resides there. The two main types of coral are hard coral and soft coral. Hard coral is the major species that build reefs. Similar to tropical rainforests, coral reefs are usually located within 30 degrees latitude of the equator. Water temperatures for the reefs are between 16 and 30 degrees Celsius, though there are coral outside these regions with somewhat colder temperatures. The ideal development waters for reefs are tropical waters which are low in nitrogen, phosphorous and other nutrients, stable temperatures, as well as stable salt content. The coral reefs we see today are a result of thousands of years of production and cycling through life and death. Coral only contribute a smaller portion of life found in the reefs, though they create a habitat for various amounts of other species. There are three main types of coral reefs: barrier reefs, fringing reefs, and atolls. Respectively, these reefs are offshore, separated by water from land, continuous with land, and islands made of coral that flank lagoons. Though there are different types, the general coral makeup is the same. After years of mystery, we now know that coral is very complex in its design. Coral is a symbiotic relationship with the small animals that make up coral called polyps, and the microscopic algae called zooxanthellae that live inside the coral. [1][2] Coral reefs lives in colonies consisting of many polyps using living tissues to connect to each other. Each polyp resembles a cupcake shape with a circle of tentacles near the opening. To capture zooplankton for food, the tentacles are equipped with stinging cells for trapping. The small polyps secrete limestone, also known as calcium carbonate. The exoskeleton of the coral is made of these secretions, just like the shell of a snail. Reefs are able to grow from the stone. [4] The algae that live in the corals use the process of photosynthesis, taking sunlight to converts water and carbon dioxide into sustenance. The polyps receive most of their energy this way, although they are carnivorous. For providing the corals with energy, the algae are provided shelter to live, taking the coral waste for their own growth. A situation where two organisms live together gaining benefit is called mutualistic symbiosis.[15] In every ecosystem, there are three groups of organisms: producers, consumers, and decomposers. Producers are usually organisms that take in sunlight to produce energy. The consumers are above the producers, and range from herbivore, omnivore, and carnivore. Next are decomposers that break down dead plants and animals that help provide food back to the producers. [12] At a first glance, the initial food source may not be very apparent in coral reefs, as there are usually low levels of actual plants to the visible eye. However, the microscopic algae as stated before take in sunlight, use photosynthesis, and create energy for the other animals and the coral. At the base of all food chains, the primary producers, also known as autotrophs are found. The producers have the ability to synthesize intricate, organic compounds like glucose using inorganic molecules and sunlight. This process is called photosynthesis. Less common producers are some bacteria. These get energy by oxidizing other inorganic compounds like hydrogen sulfide. These are better suited to live in more hostile areas such as deep sea vents. The greater proportion of production happens in the euphotic zone. This zone is within the first 70 meters of water. The way productivity is measured, is in grams of carbon produced per meter of ocean surface per year, better written as g C/m2/yr. Total productivity of the ocean is estimated to be between 75 and 150 g C/m2/yr. Common producers in the coral reefs are phytoplankton, the symbiotic zooxanthellae that live with the corals, different types of algae like coralline and turf algae, along with some seaweed. One of the more important primary producers is phytoplankton. Phytoplankton is a group of organisms like diatoms, dinoflagellates, some bacteria, and smaller species known as nanoplankton which grow about 2.0-20mm long, and picoplankton. These grow to about 0.2-2.0mm.[21] Next come consumers. Consumers rely on the producers and other consumers as their main source of energy. The first set of consumers is organisms like zooplankton, some species of corals, sea urchins, green sea turtles, herbivorous fish, and herbivorous larvae. Secondary consumers are generally carnivores, going for primary consumers. After the carnivores, come tertiary consumers, and prey on secondary consumers. These consumers tend to be carnivores as well, but can also be omnivores as well. Common types of zooplankton are copepods, amphipods and ciliates. These zooplankton, along with many more types, are the most plentiful consumers. Phytoplankton evels in the waters of coral reefs can be around 15 to 65 percent lower than neighboring open waters in the ocean because of the large amount of primary consumers that live there. Some species of coral and benthic grazers feed by filtering water to trap phytoplankton. Other creatures eat seaweed, and even the coral itself.[21] Secondary consumers are the animals that prey on primary consumers, therefore making them carnivorous. They are split up into four main groups: plankton feeders, corallivores (feeding on coral tissues), feeders that prey on other invertibrates, and fish eaters also known as piscivores. Barnacles, smaller damselfish, whales sharks, and some invertebrates make up the group of plankton feeders. The corallivores go a step further, being divided into four more groups: Coral tissue generalists, coral scrapers, polyp eaters, and mucus feeders. The most destructive sub group are the coral tissue generalists. Flatworms, parasitic snails and nudibranchs, and the Crown of Thorns sea star devour coral, leaving skeletons behind. The mucus feeders dine on slimy mucus that comes from the coral. Some examples animals of this group are shrimps and coral guard crabs. Parrot fish, butterfly fish, and certain species of trigger fish are some commonly known coral scrapers. The fish that are well adapted to eat coral polyps are able to stretch out or elongate parts of their bodies to cherry pick polyps singly out of a coral animal. Damsel fish, and many species of butterfly fish are some examples. Benthic invertebrates such as crustaceans and mollusks are eaten by many species of fish. Cephalopods focus on eating arthropods like lobsters and mantis shrimp, along with shelled invertebrates. Cone shells have been specialized on certain, specific invertebrates. Crown of Thorns sea stars are eaten by Tritons, or Charonia tritonis. Many species of fish, as well as some mollusks and arthropods are piscivores, feasting upon other fish for food. At the top of the food chain, where the animals prey on smaller fish, are the tertiary consumers. These animals are marine animals like dolphins, seals, and if they are around, even sea birds are considered. [21] In all ecosystems, decomposers are one of the most important parts of the food chain. Decomposers break down deceaced biological matter and waste from other organisms. They then transfer these things into energy, meanwhile they return the important materials back to the environment. In coral reefs, the main decomposers are bacteria. Bacteria play a very important part in the nitrogen cycle in which ammonia, or NH4 is turned into nitrite, NO2 using the bacteria in the genus Nitrosomonas. Nitrite is then turned into nitrate, NO3 by bacteria in the Nitrobacter genus. Ultimately, the end result is levels in wastes that are toxic tend to be very low, and are processed into bits that the main producers can easily use. Detrivores, or animals that scavenge, have a somewhat similar job in turning out dead and waste material. Other organisms that contribute to this are sea cucumbers, bristle worms, and some species of snails.[21]Coral reef trophic structureThis is a diagram of the food chain i n the coral reef. It better describes how the energy is transferred between the tiers. Solar energy is taken in by the primary producers, the primary consumers eat the primary producers, the secondary consumers eat the primary consumers, and the tertiary consumers eat the secondary and primary consumers. Each of these tiers can be decomposed and have their energy given back to the primary producers. Also between each stage of the ecosystem pyramid is the loss of heat energy. [20] Though they may seem like a stable ecosystem, many threats are present to coral reefs. Their delicate structure can be very easy to disrupt, pollute, damage, and overall harm. Things like the acidification of the ocean, global warming, coral bleaching, levels in carbon dioxide, water pollution, sedimentation from construction, fishing practices that are destructive like blast fishing, and coral mining are good, yet terrible examples of threats.[9] Carbon dioxide, along with other gasses that trap heat is being constantly thrown up into the atmosphere, helping the process of global warming. Acting as a sort of shield, these gasses do not allow the heat we get from our sun to leave the Earths atmosphere. One of the main reasons this happens is deforestation, and the burning of fossil fuels. When heat isnt allowed to exit the Earth, water temperatures rise. This is very dangerous to coral reefs, which are super sensitive to changes in temperature, as the reefs require a certain temperature range to function. When the coral polyps become stressed from rising temperatures, they discharge the algae living within them, which give the coral most of its energy. When this happens, the colour also goes with the algae, leaving the coral looking bleached. As bad as this seems, there are chances for coral to recuperate if the environment returns back to normal in a fair amount of time. Most bleached coral die, however. [14] Coral Reef Bleaching This diagram shows how the process of bleaching occurs. Healthy corals have zooxanthellae all around the body. As conditions worsen, the zooxanthellae leave the coral. The coral starves and dies. After a while, another kind of algae covers the coral, making it harder for the corals to gain back their zooxanthellae. [9] Carbon dioxide content in the air has increased by about one third over the past few decades. The carbon dioxide also mixes into the water, which also is thought to be dissolving the coral, letting other threats like wave damage, fishers using destructive means, and possibly even tourists who do not care too much about being careful become much more of a threat than usual[9] Pairing with global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer is caused by chemicals in the atmosphere, one of which is commonly known as CFCs, or chlorofluorocarbons. These chemicals further the depletion of the ozone layer, pumping up the amount of the suns radiation. In more shallow areas, it is believed that the damage done to corals increase.[9] One of the leading causes for the destruction of coral reefs scientists have found is pollution. Pollution of all sorts damage the reefs, be it oil, gas, or pesticides. These reefs and the organisms that live within the system are poisoned whenever animal and/or human wastes, fertilizers, and chemicals are dumped into the ocean, or get carried by rivers into the ocean into the waters that reefs exist. When these bad things are introduced, levels of nitrogen in the coral reefs grow, resulting in an abundance of algae. The extra algae then start cutting off sunlight from the coral, starving it of important nutrients. Floating trash and other similar wastes can cover and block the reefs from getting sunlight as well. Mistaking plastic bags for sea jellies, turtles will often go after them and eat the bags. If they do, the plastic inside will starve them to death because of blockage in the digestive tract. Ghost nets or nets that have been lost, discarded, or forgot about may catch hold of reefs, strangling many fish, turtles, and other marine mammals. [9] Careless tourists and things affiliated with tourism can pollute damage and kill corals reefs as well. Resorts near sites with reefs might have septic tanks that leak, seeping sewage into the waters nearby. These establishments might also simply dump waste they want to get rid of into the waters. The people themselves can damage the reefs as well by either accidentally or purposefully step on, kick or grab corals or the sediment around them, stirring up sand and sediments that can block sunlight as well as damage the corals directly. Setting down boat anchors nearby can destroy corals too. This usually happens when people attempt to mine the reefs of coral colonies. Broken pieces of coral can be used for bricks, road filling and when ground up into limestone, will be mixed into cement for construction. This is not the only reason corals are taken. They can be sold as tourist souvenirs, jewelry, and decorative pieces.[9] Certain ways of fishing are pretty destructive to the environment as well. Practices like over-fishing, using blasts or charges to kill fish, and even fishing with cyanide are all threats to reefs, and any other ecosystem. Most fish caught using cyanide are sold in primarily in Asian countries, and given to customers in restaurants. Catching fish with cyanide involves fishers actually diving down into reefs and squirting cyanide into the crevices of corals and onto fast moving fish, stunning them for catching. Other fish nearby along with coral polyps are poisoned by this.[9] Over fishing is another big cause of coral damage. A lot of times, a population near a reef will catch too many fish from a single reef to feed themselves. Things like banging sticks against the reef destroy formations of coral that provide homes for fish. Blast fishing, or fishing with explosives, is very bad for coral. When a charge is set off, the surrounding area is blown to bits, leaving little intact.[9] Numbers of people that live along coasts have risen, leading to higher uses of the resources from the coastlines. This is causing many problems for waters near land developments, especially for coral reefs. Some cities like Hong Kong, Singapore and Honolulu had beautiful coral reefs. Due to the rising populations, however, things went sour for the reefs. Pollution, construction, docks and piers to name a few have been made. Some establishments have even been made directly on top of the reefs, both destroying them and leaving the little coral that survived barely any sunlight. Reefs are still experiencing this fate as more human communities grow along the shores. image This is a diagram showing some -but not all- threats to coral reefs. By following the arrows, it is evident that just one these threats can lead to a multitude of consequences. This diagram does not even list all the potential threats. It is safe to assume that if all the threats were listed and shown this way, the result would be extremely overwhelming. The more word spreads about how much can harm a coral reef, the better.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Essay --

Stubblefield 1 Marlene Stubblefield Dr. Judith Palier American National Government 17 November 2013 The Second Amendant: What does it mean? As violence and murder rates escalate in America so does the issue of gun control. The consequence of this tragedy births volatile political discourse about gun control and the Second Amendment. The crux of the question is what the founding fathers meant when they wrote, â€Å"A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.† Since the writing of the Second Amendment the make and model of firearms has changed dramatically and so has the philosophies of the people. A rifle is no longer defined as a single shot, muzzle-loading musket used to primarily protect families or solely for food. Should the weapons we use today be protected by an amendment written nearly 222 years ago? Should the second amendment be rewritten? Does the Second Amendment apply to individual citizens? These questions spark extensive debates in Washington D.C. regarding what the founding fathers intended t he amendment to be. The answer to this question lies in the fact that despite hundreds of gun control articles having been written , still the gun control issue remains unresolved. History tells us gun control debates will be in a stalemate until our judicial system defines or rewrites the Second Amend. This paper will examine the history of the Second Amendment, and attempt to define the framers intent, gun control legislation and look at factors that affect Americans on this specific issue... ...o militias, and dismissed his lawsuit. Heller perused his lawsuit; the matter was appealed and sent to the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. The Court of Appeals reversed the lowers court decision based on reasons the Second Amendment clearly mentions an individual may bear arms while serving in the militia, and the same individual has a right protect himself and his family as sacrosanct. The court concludes that the city’s ban on handguns and its requirement that firearms in the home be kept nonfunctional violated that right. In other words, an individual need not be in a militia to own a firearm, it is an individual’s right to own a firearm in self -defense. Heller concluded his defense by saying, â€Å"self-defense is a basic right recognized by ancient legal system to present, and it is the central component of the Second Amendment† (D.C. v Heller).

Friday, July 19, 2019

Financing Transport Projects Essay -- essays research papers

<a href="">Sam Vaknin's Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web Sites The role of government in facilitating transport projects is inevitable. But governments are monopolists and largely cannot be trusted with the efficient allocation of resources, not to mention the problem of corruption. So, the less the state is involved the better off everyone is. Transport has gone a full circle. Until the beginning of the 17th century it was largely privately financed. The state took over until the last two decades of the twentieth century. And now there is a revival of the involvement of the private sector in financing infrastructure. Additionally, transport has become a commodity and is securitized, as we shall see. All social (or public) goods carry social costs and bring on negative externalities (such as environmental damage). Embedded in every public good there is a moral hazard - others bear a disproportionate part of the costs while the perpetrators go "free". This is why accurate statistics, forecasting and cost benefit analysis systems are a must. I am not talking only about cost coverage calculations but also about finding ways to impose on the users of transport infrastructure the real costs of their actions. This is known today as "user pays" charging schemes. But to do so, the state needs to know what ARE these costs. This is one way of forcing the private sector to participate in t...

It is Important to have Knowledge of History Essay -- Patricia Nelson

It is Important to have Knowledge of History Though the past may bring "a revival and restoration of the misery"(Limerick 473), I believe it is necessary to know and study our past. Through this essay I shall explain how knowledge of the past helps improve the quality of future output, satisfy our human thirst for knowledge, and understand certain polices and regulations.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Even in our everyday life we can see how past knowledge helps to improve the future's outcome. Whether it is improvement of policies, electronics or automobiles improvement is always occurring. The computer is one such item which has come a long way. It would taking up entire rooms, run very slowly, and create tremendous amounts of heat. As improvement began they became smaller, faster and more energy efficient. Today they are very small, and run at tremendously high speeds while producing very little heat. Each improvement in the computers history could not have been made without knowledge of its predecessor's blueprints. Without this knowledge improvement would be impossible, always building the same exact computers with the same problems and never realizing it could have been built in a different way perhaps with better materials or a different more efficient computer language.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the same way as knowledge of the past helps to improve computers, it also improves the quality of life for mankind. Knowledge of our past helps us to see how humans react and deal with situations. this allows us to take preventative measures. There was a time when mankind was always at war with each other. Everyone was fighting to take each others land, food, and technology. Since then the United Nations have been created to prevent such types of pointless wars and now there are police which enforce the law and a government in which power lies in the people. There have been many bad times for humans in all parts of the world throughout history. There have been big and small wars with huge death tolls, small battles, famines, depressions, slavery and countless others events which could have been prevented if we had known what the outcome would be. Just as a person learns from their mistakes, knowledge of our history helps us to learn from our mistakes giving us insight into the fut ure. Many events that have happened in our past no longer plague the world today. Slavery used to be prevalent ... ...n that long that blacks have been able to educate themselves without the obstacle of segregation or harassment, though the lack of money still remains amongst many blacks. When faced with this knowledge of the black Americans past Caucasians can come to see how opportunities they have always had and maybe taken for granted were never given to Blacks. This allows acceptance of such biased policies such as affirmative action. In the past wars would have started over such a policy, but history helps us to understand there reasons for being and allow them. Though our history may bring back horrible memories of the ?grimmest dimensions of human nature? (Limerick 472), it is necessary to have a good historical background. History gives us the ability to improve future outputs, satisfy our unending need for knowledge, and understand how many policies and regulations have come to be. Without history mankind would be very primitive and ununified. Our complete molding of the world today is almost completely dependent on the fact that we study our history. Without history present day humans would be nothing more than cavemen. Source Cited Patricia Nelson Limerick, Haunted America.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Love, Fear, Sexuality and Society Essay

The dawn of the 16th century, brought with it the evolution of great knowledge, an era of enlightenment, with not only the new growing social lifestyle of people but also the evolution in their thinking. The idea of love and fear therefore was the one established and molded into a new sculpture by the revolutionist and philosophers; and how we know the right and wrong today is what was established through the writings of these intellectuals’ years ago. Founder of political sciences of the 15th century, Niccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, was an Italian born writer, philosopher, and politician; who through the strength of his pen and intellect was able to give the world a new perspective of the never dieing entity, love and hope. As a man of Renaissance, while holding a high political position, his writings are also a combination of his deep political thought and insight. He is most famous for his short novel, The Prince, which is his realistic approach towards the political discourse of that time period, exhibiting the advance towards power. â€Å"The Prince,† originally written in 1513 (however got published in 1532), is known as a political treatise, for its formal exposition of the ideology of political affairs. It is usually alluded to being called as a piece of act which represents the word â€Å"Machiavellian,† which refers to the playing politics in a ruthless way in order to retain power and position; moreover many critics have also states the story to be satire. The novel is a form of guide for a ruling or an expected prince, of how he can attain his throne, and then make sure that he remains in power and control. The idea of attaining the power is placed as crucial and primary to all, even where principality comes secondary to its approach, which he does so by dictating old examples of rulers, and making his own generalizations and hypothesizes upon them. According to Machiavelli, the first moral of ruling is to have an economically and politically stable country, and then it is upon the ruler as to how he would protect it even if the ways used by him were cruel, they remained justifiable as long as they kept her power sustained. The main purpose of the book was to explain Machiavelli’s ability and knowledge in politics, not promoting love and prosperity between powers, but rather working by conquering people’s fear and force. There are various themes discussed by the author in the book such as military and defense, which are the prerequisites of a firm state, having a fortified and well protected area, with no help being taken from allies as that would be a burden of favor, and stand brave in the battlefield. The book quite rigidity states that attributes such as mercy, religiousness, and principality, are good virtues too possess, but are not for a prince to adapt, as he at times has to work against them in order to defend his land. Also that a prince is better at being known as a miser than as a generous ruler, as it would weaken his economic status as well as bring grief upon people with larger taxes, thus having a bad reputation would be better than rather ending up with nothing. In answering to the idea of love and fear Machiavelli states that â€Å"it would be best to be both loved and feared. But since the two rarely come together, anyone compelled to choose will find greater security in being feared than in being loved. † (Machiavelli, Chapter 17, pp 60) He believes that commitments made under fear, are always kept firm; while a prince should also be careful that he is not feared to the point of hatred. Creating fear within the commandment of an army is necessary in order to gain their respect, and it should be brought upon the garrison even if the prince has to turn towards cruelty. Through the book the author emphasizes the fact that the only power which kept a prince from winning over his land and also his people is actually his ability to rule, rather than his fortune. He dictates the examples of Hannibal and Scipio Africanus; Hannibal who maintained a strong fear throughout his army, which consisted of soldiers of various races, and it was this fear of his which kept the army sturdy and united through out his reign; while Scipio, no matter had great abilities but is famous for the mutinies and trouble he had to face from the side of his own army. Virtue for Machiavelli did not carry a moral tone but it was rather based upon skill, courage, physical and mental capacity. However, in chapter of 8 of his book, the author mentions that no matter cruelty is important for governance but it should be properly utilized to attain a goal, but if it is made repetitive and arouses constant fear amongst the citizens then the prince does not contain any ability. It is not necessary for him to be loved, but he should be close enough to his people that he is not even hated, and thus requires both wisdom and courage; and above that the peripheral point should be established by which the prince is feared but not hated. And who could understand the complexities and the queries of life in a more powerful than the searcher of the nature, Plato, one of the greatest Greek philosophers. Born in 427 BC in Athens, Plato was the student of Socrates, and had his theories as an explanation and an elaboration of those presented by his master. Most of his writings are found in the form of a dialogue between him and Socrates, discussing numerous fascinating topics. Gorgias, is one of the most famous dialogues written by Plato, in which he defines a man’s virtuously right and proper nature. (Plato, 1994) It is believed to be a transitional dialogue, in which Plato represents Socrates teachings towards him in an indirect manner. This dialogue is seen to be carried out between Socrates, Gorgias and Callicles who are both rhetoricians, Pollus and Chaerephon who are both philosophy students; and the dialogue begins from Socrates side to prove the rhetoricians for being only people of sheer words. This dialogue is famous for the themes which it carries such as that of morality, philosophy and spirituality; forms into a debate between truth and falsehood. Socrates in his dialogue proving refutation explains that it is worse to inflict evil upon somebody rather than being an innocent victim of it and the most, unhappy man of the world would be the one who doesn’t meet his just punishment. While the best cure for an evil man would be when he meets his justice; paying for his sins. He believes that a wrong doer should be left on his own, his body to rot in the pain of his own guilt; and only with time when he realizes his guilt would his sins be forgiven and he move towards becoming a better and stronger person; no matter the rhetoricians disagree with his thought, as they believe that such treatment would be doing more evil than benefiting for good. Socrates ends the dialogue by explaining that on the Day of Judgment, man would be scrutinized and judged naked so that there are no hindrances for what he truly is. He believes that the evil doer’s body would be brandished by their sins, and they would be identifiable. According to Socrates, in the dialogue a man’s virtue should be his ultimate goal, which should be based upon principles, and truth; while those who tend to love their own self alone and indulge in self pampering, are the selfish ones, as their self gratification would never cease but would only continue to get bigger with hunger of power and indulgence. Creating fear and causing pain to others is the greatest evil, as identified by Plato; and becomes the most significant theme of most of Plato’s writings because of the unjust and evil death of his teacher Socrates; which destroyed his vision of the truth and its enhancement in nature. The dialogue however, concludes by declaring virtue as the â€Å"good life,† which can only be attained via the compliance of principles and correct behavioral methods. Both the books â€Å"Prince† and â€Å"Gorgias,† believe in the achievement of power, not only to gain a greater control but also to satisfy and pamper one’s own self; and agree to the fact that once in power. An individual might stray from principality and truth for long term benefits seen at a larger scale; but should refrain from evil as it would create hatred as well as lead to god’s in the life of Hereafter. However when Machiavelli describes the attainment of power as man’s vital goal, Plato believes into its attainment but to a certain level alone could one sacrifice his principles to achieve it; after which he would be nothing but an evil dweller, increasing his part of sins. Both the writings show the difference between the thought of a politician, who take s the world in more of a materialistic manner, and that of a philosopher who takes a deeper look into things and does not talk about an individual alone or his unitary life; but talks about all the third parties affected by his actions and his spiritual life which would also be affected by his balance of truth and falsehood. Compare and describe the relationship between sexuality and society in the authors read so far. Writers since centuries have talked about how sexuality and society work together, complimenting each other, which evolve gradually with the society giving more leverage and promotion at an open arena to sexuality, as it grows wider and is able to compensate more liberal point of views openly. â€Å"Don Juan,† is a classic story which has been told and retold since centuries; its legendary tale being changed and evolved with the evolution of time, it has seen changes according to the prevailing circumstances and the notions of the writers who dwelled with its story line. Don Juan, as announced by the Spanish or Don Giovanni as told by the Italians, is the tale of a social libertine, an individual who has given of all the norms and rights of the society, such a person who does not believe into the limits of religion or morality. The legend of Don Juan talks about such a person who indulges himself into the pleasure of seducing women and enjoys winning over them. One day, Don Juan meets the dead spirit of the father of a girl he has seduced; casually and not knowing it he invites him to his house for dinner. In return to this compliment, the father invites Don Juan to his graveyard for dinner, when he accepts the invitation and extends his hand to the spirit, pulls him into the grave and takes him into the bottomless pit of hell, where he is to burn in the redemption for his unforgivable sins. The oldest version of Don Juan to be placed in writing is believed to be written by Tirso de Molina, by the name El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra. Later a revised edition was written by Moliere, in 1665; who was also made to make continous ammendments by the critics, who took as a largely shameful act; and was not until 1185, that the orignal play was allowed to be acted without censorships. However, the society at that time failed to accept the play, as they found it too liberal and outspoken, which broke the barriers of religion and offended the prestiege of the king. Thus it laid down as least cost effective, and as the protagonist himself is portrayed as a catholic, thsu it further offends the teaches of the church by portraying them as hypocrates and evil doers. On the other hand, the representation of Don Juan in that era represents how sexulaity was missed used even in those times, but hardly any writteen record is seen because of the fact that the rulers didn’t want any such tales to be spoken of openly; theey were then brought under the case of adultery. Don Juan, also is the symbol of evil, a womanizer who cannot attain his forgiveness, he has sined so much in his life that even his good deeds are shadowed by his hypocrite nature. Every action of his holds insincerity and cannot be forgiven, and when eventually it is symbolised that he has been taken into the hell, it shows that the world did not contain any less painful avenge for him; and his death brought peace to all the woman who had suffered because of his flimsy character. Therefore by the story of Don Juan, conceived in the early 17th century, it can be seen that sexuality was miss used even in that time period but the society perferred to keeep it hidden and secretive, burrying such evil facts and tales which spoke against the religious and moral norms of the ruling powers. Evil of the society was thus only a hushed talk in those times. â€Å"The Prince,† a guide for the rulers of the world written by a government official of Florence, Italy, Niccolo Machiavelli, in the 16th Century; helps us know today of how gravely was the impact of politics and the attainment of power and prestige in the lives of people of that era. As the book states different tips and ways in which a prince could govern his kingdom in thee most efficient way winning both his commandment upon army and his position. Machiavelli also believed that gaining love from his people was not the most important part of ruling; a prince could never be too generous and lenient with his folk; however it was of vital importance that he managed his fear upon them so that he would respect him and treats him with the power and gratitude that he deserves. A ruler was not always successful through his inheritance or his economic strength; but he was turned into a symbol of esteem through his ability; which not only shined in his character but also was represented by the society which he ruled. Thus the prince held great responsibility for his own self and the lives of all those, whose protection was sworn onto him. To take even a deeper analysis into the lives of the people of the 16th century, we might take a look into the analysis of the book â€Å"Leviathan,† written by Thomas Hobbes in 1660. After looking through the time via the perspectives of a story teller, and then a politician, we take into the account of the era through the notions formed by a political philosopher; this book did not only establish a political thought in the minds of thee people but was also significant enough in influencing and establishing the entire Western political philosophy and laying down the perspective for the social contract theory. The book was first written by Hobbes at the time of the English Civil War, where he saw chaos and trouble through out the society. In such times Hobbes believed that the only thing which could keep the community together would be a strong unified governing system which would act as a central body in decision making, keeping away the evils of chaos and civil misbehavior. The theory represented by Hobbes believes that if man is left without a government to live in a free market, operated by no restrictions, then he lives the life of nature, whereby everything is free for anybody, which in the long run would lead to war, poverty, frustration and hatred. To prevent this, a social contract needs to be established which would establish a civil society, and distribute the scarce resources in a much more efficient way. This is a form of a commonwealth, which would help establish a protected civil society. The book can be divided into four parts, whereas the one which represents the society and its relation to sexuality is book one, â€Å"of Man. † Chapter 6 of this book discusses the theme of the involuntary emotions which arise inside a human being, over which he holds no control, known as passions. He describes these motions of man as animal instincts, categorizing them as â€Å"vital,† and â€Å"voluntary. † Vital being those which formulate the metabolism and are innate, while the later are those which man learns with the course of his life. He by this formulates the idea that human nature is actually a by product of his metabolism. His innate motions form desires known as endeavors, which raise love and hatred in man, which then form an aversion in a human being. While some of these desires are born with man, while some re learnt so with time and experience, and it is then from these appetites and aversions that passions arise which are known to be specific to human nature, of which those which qualify to be his appetite are those things that he likes, while those which fall into his aversions formulate his hatred and are evil. Then Chapter 11 and 13 of the book describe how manners differ in human beings and how he would respond to his conditions of misery. Hobbes further here describes how power in man could be self created and that which is instrumental attained from his society. However a man may differ from another due to his different manners which come from his ability to negotiate between power and fear; and it is through this knowledge that the society can in the end attain peace; when fear originates from ignorance and a person’s lack of foreseeing the future. Hobbes then concludes this part of his book with the thesis that when a human being lives in a society without any social contract, at that time he is living in a â€Å"state of nature,† and when a society is bent into such a living then it is nothing more than just a flake of imagination having no true existence. As Thomas Hobbes states: â€Å"In such condition, there is no place for industry . . . no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation . . . no commodious Building; no instruments of moving . . . no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. † (Chapter 13) References Fort, A. ,B. and Kates, H. , S. 1935 Don Juan or The Stone Death. Minute History of the Drama. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. p. 47. Retrieved on Nov 27, 2007 from. http://www. theatrehistory. com/french/donjuan001. html Hobbes, T. (1651) The Leviathan. London: Andrew Crooke. Chapter 13 Machiavelli, N. (1908). The Prince, (1513). ed. W. K. Marriott. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, Pp 60. Plato. (1994) Collected Dialogues. eds. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Discussion About Genetically Modified Foods Essay

Outline gate a. The hereditaryally limited nourishments ar a long issue which is widely debated. b. heap feel conf apply somewhat their safety. I. Views a. ) Magana-Gomezs argument. b. ) He argues that negative effects of GM diet were identified at molecular(a) and microscopical levels. c. ) Curieux-Belfond CL contends that the derives of genetically circumscribed aliments far outweigh the disadvantages. II. Genetically limited intellectual nourishments Beneficial views & Adverse views a. What is the possible guessiness for genetically circumscribed crops considering provisions and wellness? b. Whether the stintingal effects are the most important?c. Will it bring crude(a) environment problems?III. Arguments for beneficial effects of GM regimens a. Firstly, transgenic engineering science has made considerable gird in food applications. b. Transgenic food has successfully lowered food prices and ensured food safety. c. GM foods signifi reartly shrivel up the en vironmental disturb of agriculture. Introduction The author, Magana-Gomez, critically crushd the risk discernment methods of transgenic food for gentlemans gentleman nutrition and health in the paper, Risk assessment of genetically circumscribed crops for nutrition and health.Magana reviewed various modes including different feeding period, sensual modes and parameters in the paper publish in 2011 by Nutrition inspections (Magana G, 2009). In consonant with his studies, negative effects of GM food were identified at molecular and microscopic levels. However, with our entry into the 21st century, genetically change foods fix undergone even faster learning. However, on that point are also many doubts about the safety of genetically modify foods. Therefore, genetically limited foods rent be do a hot topic issue. Personally, although there are many controversiesabout GM food, I still insist on the seek and set aheadion of transgenic food due to its various clears. Vi ews According to Curieux-Belfond CL, he could identify the factors that be consideration before commercialization and promotion of transgenic food (182). In this paper, Factors to condider before work and commercialization of aquatic genetically modify organisms the case of transgenic salmon, the author took transgenic salmon as an example, in which Curieux-Belfond examined the corresponding impacts in terms of aquaculture, wildlife, ecosystem and human health.The paper published in 2011 by Evironmental Science & form _or_ system of government suggested that GM food undoubtedly contributed to economic benefits without exerting too frequently extra core group (Curieux B, 2009). In the end, the author believed that the benefits of genetically modified foods far outweigh the disadvantages. Analysis of the benefits of genetically modified foods Maganas argument is glib when he assessed the risks about GM food.However, since genetic engineer techniques have successfully transf erred anti-viral, shucks lo handling resistance, cold resistance and other genes to cotton, wheat, tomatoes and other puts, we can get stable impudent varieties of genetically modified, with low production live and high-yield food, which allow ease the world food shortage and reduce the use of pesticides to a large extent. Based on the above reasons, I testament provide a critical analysis with the following proper(postnominal) examples which show his argument is partially wrong.Firstly, transgenic technology has also made considerable progress in animal food applications. At present, a variety of mammal and bird genes are successfully integrated into the genome of fish, which can significantly enhance transgenic fish muscular tissue protein content and break harvest-home speed. With the teaching of genetic technology technology, plurality have been freed from natural enzymes to a large extent. curiously when the enzyme obtained from natural protein material encounte rs difficulties, genetic engineering has the unique advantages of natural gene re-create (Seralini GE, 2011).Thus, it can be highly convey in microorganisms with mass production by fermentation. At present, the transgenic enzymes are widely used in the food industry, such as maltose enzymes amylase, pectinase and the juice protease. The food nutritionary quality modified by genetic engineering has also made rare achievements. For instance, the genetic engineering technology has been employ for seed protein improvement, which renders it possible to change the plant composition and amino acid content.Secondly, transgenic food has successfully lowered food prices and ensured food safety, which armed services increase production and food furnish period cut down the farm beat back and pesticide applications, countrified inputs and production costs (Weasel LH, 2009). In the future, GM crops have great probable in solving the food crisis. For instance, by applying transgenic t echnology to the human staple foods of rice and wheat, people can increase food production and improve nutritional quality, which will provide mankind with higher-quality food.Further more(prenominal), GM foods have also proved effective in alleviating poverty and hunger. The worlds shortest 50% of the population are small and resource-poor farmers, while 20% musical accompaniment in artless areas without their own footing actually suppose on agriculture. Therefore, the increase in diminished and resource-poor farmers income will directly assist 70% of the worlds poorest people (Curieux-Belfond O, 2009). So far, genetically modified cotton in India, China and South Africa have already made a significant division to more than 1. 2 million poor farmers income.The benefits of genetically modified corn in the Philippines and South Africa will be much clearer in the future. In addition, genetically modified rice has great potential to benefit 250 million poor families in Asia, who se benefits will reach 10 million people (Curieux-Belfond O, 2009). Transgenic food also helps to reduce state of matter discipline. Transgenic technology has been developed to improve the underway 1. 5 one million million million hectares of arable land productivity through conservation of biologic resources, thereby reducing land development and deforestation.Thirdly, I will demonstrate such improvement since they significantly reduce the environmental impact of agriculture. Traditional agriculture has a significant impact on the environment, and transgenic biotech can help reduce this impact. In the first decade of application of genetically modified crops, by planting weed killer and insect-resistant characteristics, transgenic technologies have greatly reduced the use of pesticides, saved fossil cans and reduced degree Celsius dioxide emissions.Undoubtedly, genetically modified crops with drought-tolerant genes will improve water-use efficiency and maintain sustainable agricultural development, which will play an important piece in easing the crisis of population growth and global food shortage (Artemis D, 2009). GM crops have also contributed to reduce carbon paper dioxide emissions in two main ways, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping remit climate change. First, by reducing fuel use, the spraying of insecticides and herbicides, GM crops continue to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In 2007, genetic engineering has been stated to reduce 1.1 billion kilograms of carbon dioxide emissions, which is equivalent to a ebb of 50 million cars from the road. Secondly, herbicide-resistant GM crops help reduce tillage applications, which protects the land and enhances bemire carbon sequestration. Conclusions Despite the many advantages of GM food, we cannot ignore the risks. After genetically modified foods have been taken into the human body, they whitethorn cause harm to human health. Moreover, aft(prenominal) a large number of transgenic c rops come into nature, they may be biologically offensive to ecosystems.Since the risks of GM food is serous, it is important for us to polish on it first. Any of the scientific and technological developments should be comprehensive and provide well-being for human life. If genetically modified foods can only increase our economic interests and improved material life without the moral, kindly and environmental harmony, they cannot be defined as making great contribution to affectionate development. Therefore, whether GM food is a benefit or a disadvantage sincerely depends on what kind of human set people hold (Qaim M. 2009). That is the question we reflect on deeply.In contemporary society, with the fast development of science and technology, the economic internet site of the human and the material standard of life-time has been soaring. It seems that mankind is taking great soaring for the advanced technology. However, we should look back to what the living environment w e rely on is subjected to. Therefore, genetically modified foods are seen as the saviour of mankind, which is actually human self-centered ideology. Of course, with the straight development of biotechnology and genetic engineering, human beings have the ability to create more genetically modified food.Therefore, the drawbacks of genetically modified food are not the technology itself, but rather due to human race themselves. Thus, personally, I fully sanction the development of GM foods while we should objectively analyze the potential risks. Reference Artemis D. 2009. Health risks of genetically modified foods. Food Science and Nutrition. 49. (2)164-175. Curieux B, Vandelac L, ect. 2009. Factors to condider before production and commercialization of aquatic genetically modified organisms the case of transgenic salmon. Evironmental Science & Policy. 12. (2)170-189.Magana G, Javier A, Calderon de la Barca, Ana M. 2009. Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health. Nutrition Reviews. 67 (1)1-16. Qaim M. 2009. The political economy of genetically modified crops. Annual Review of Resource Economics. 1665-693. Seralini GE, Mesnage R, ect. 2011. Genetically modified crops safety assessments present limits and possible improvements. environmental Sciences Europe. 23. (10) 1-10. Weasel LH. 2009. Food Fray Inside the literary argument over Genetically Modified Food. American Management Association. Amacom, 86-150. Print.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Goals of Linguistic Essay

Goals of Linguistic Essay

Mr. 1. Introduction 1. 1.If youre writing a career goals essay, keep reading to learn how.* mad Clean deduction is only possible in the logical disciplines. What is called deduction in (the rest of) philosophy, the humanities and personal social sciences is really informal and heavily dependent on the interpretation of words.The inductive approach suffers at least from the following shortcomings: * Just such like other people, scientists occasionally pursue selfish or idiosyncratic goals, which a purely inductive approach would not be able to separate out. * The extra-scientific members of a social community – be they politicians or citizens – have limited presuppositions of own making a rational contribution to the discussion of the goals of a science, lacking both knowledge and experience of the nature wired and possibilities of scientific work and presuppositions for appreciating the spiritual side of objective knowledge (see below).Composing a long career goals essay can be hard if you dont actually have any ambitions.

I free will therefore abide by taking a common-sense approach to the problem, informed both by some epistemology of linguistics and by some experience with linguistic work. 1. 2. Fundamentals Like any human activity, linguistics has a place in a teleonomic hierarchy (see teleonomische Hierarchie) which is headed by its ultimate goals.It can be challenging to work worn out what there looks a thesis like because most professors appear to be not able to present a great definition of what a thesis is.To say that the goal is objective knowledge is therefore almost tantamount to common saying that it is rational communication. This rephrasing also serves the purpose of avoiding a static conception of ‘objective knowledge’. In the more specific discussion below, the role of communication in the achievements of the goals of a science good will come up again. Understanding has two sides, a spiritual and a practical one.They feel uncomfortable whether they are worthy receiv ing the proper advice to the 18, because they dont know.

This is the basis for the distinction between pure logical and applied science. Linguistics is the study of human language.Understanding this object has a purely spiritual aspect, which constitutes what might be called â€Å"pure linguistics† and what is more commonly called general linguistics. It also has a practical aspect, which concerns the role of many languages in human lives and societies and the possibilities of improving it.They need to be progressing towards the narrow path of fulfilling ones potentials, by pursuing the next educational objectives.Here we will focus on the tasks of linguistics as an empirical discipline. good For such a discipline, the main tasks are: 1. elaboration of a theory of its object 2. documentation and brief description of its object 3.Its essential for me to find a good education.

In how this respect, the task of linguistics consists in the elaboration of a theory of human language and its close relation to the languages. Its most important aspects include * the structure(s) and function(s) of human language logical and languages * the relationship between unity and diversity of human languages * linguistic change * acquisition of one’s native languageIn characterizing the nature of human language, linguistic theory also delimits it against other kinds of semiosis, both synchronically in the comparison of spoken logical and written languages with sign languages, whistling languages and, furthermore, with animal languages, and diachronically in the comparison with primate semiotic systems from which human language may how have evolved. 3. Empiry: documentation and description of languages As recalled above, linguistics is (among other things) an empirical science.Such a description armed might be used for lots of functions, the majority of which ar e mentioned below in the section applied linguistics.language description: 1. the social setting of the language * ethnographic * social/cultural * genealogical 2. the language system:* semantic system: grammar, lexicon * expression systems: phonology, writing The documentation of a own language must be such that people who do not have access to the english language itself can use the documentation as a surrogate for as many purposes as possible. In particular, it should be possible to develop a description of a language on the basis of its documentation.Language many plays a part in personal identity.

That is, in the synchronic perspective, they are systematic, while in the diachronic perspective, they are historical. 4. Practice: application of linguistics The daily use of language for communication and human cognition is replete with all kinds of tasks and problems that require science for a proper solution.Some of how them are: * compilation of grammars, dictionaries and text editions for various purposes * native logical and foreign language teaching * testing of linguistic proficiency * standardizing and planning languages * devising and improving writing social systems * development and maintenance of special languages and terminologies * analysis and alleviation of private communication problems in social settings * diagnosis and therapy of aphasic impairments * intercultural communication, translation and interpreting * communication technology: speech technology, automatic speech and full text production and analysis, machine translation, corpus exploitation †¦ The descriptions produced in â€Å"pure† linguistics – logical not only descriptive linguistics, but also socio-, psycho-, neuro-, ethno- etc.Many languages have never been so lucky.* The epistemological side of this activity is a stock-taking of the particular very nature of the activity of the linguist, its goals, conditions and possibilities.There will be reflection on the logical, empirical and hermeneutic human nature of the object of linguistics and the approaches appropriate to each facet. * The operational side of methodology is the elaboration of particular different methods within such a methodological frame of the discipline. Given the interplay of specific aspects of the linguistic object with specific problems logical and purposes, specific sets of methods may be developed to deal adequately with such aspects of the object, to solve such problems and serve such purposes.Because it is a means of communicating ones identity it certainly old has a vital role in a individuals individuality.

Cooperation: interdisciplinary fertilization.The articulation of science into disciplines is, first of all, a necessity of the division of labor. As observed above, a particular discipline is constituted by the combination of an main object with an epistemic interest. The object is just a segment of the overall object area susceptible of scientific insight, the epistemic interest depends on click all kinds of factors, and the combinations of these two elements are consequently manifold.Possessing a different language is a step and a own benefit forward.where the interfaces for the combination of related theories are. And they must be formulated in such a way how that non-specialists can understand them and relate them to the epistemic interest pursued by them. Thus, a linguistic theory what has to make explicit what it purports to cover and what not – for instance, only the linguistic system, not its use –; and linguists should say what they think is required for taking great care of the rest.Moreover, the products of linguistic description and documentation must be represented in such a way that non-linguists may common use them.Thesis statements arent simple to write.

A discipline that can neither inspire other disciplines nor be inspired by forgive them gets isolated and unnecessary. 7. Conclusion Above, five areas of goals of linguistics have been identified: 1.Theory: the nature of only human language 2.Decisions are constructed upon conclusions.Goal #1, the elaboration of a theory of its object, is the highest goal of any science. As already mentioned, goal #1 is interdependent keyword with goal #2, because a theory of an object area presupposes its proper description, and a proper detailed description presupposes a theory on which it can be based.Furthermore, the production of documentations and descriptions is a service to the society. This is even more true of goal #3: The solution of daily-life tasks and problems is a practical contribution to the improvement of the conditio humana.Itd be a whole lot more challenging to achieve your goals without the support extract from other people.

Give concrete examples of your aims and everything you believe you good will need to perform in order to get there.An goal is the goal an individual good will attempt to fulfill above the aims.If it regards objectives I also have made my own mind up.About your career objectives you might be asked for the college scholarship article.