Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Second Amendment Essays (2460 words) - Gun Politics, James Madison

Second Amendment The United States of America has removed extreme strides in taking the American people groups undeniable rights and Constitutional rights. The United States government should be an administration of the individuals, by the individuals, for the individuals. There are away from of a dangerous development inside our legislature and the residents of America need to take safeguard measures to guarantee the opportunity for which our establishing fathers battled and kicked the bucket. I am talking about various issues that have emerged in the United States that plainly show that our government is removing our privileges. I will ideally have the option to show a brief depiction of the legislature, as it is today and what it was intended to be. I will likewise depict our privileges and the explanations behind keeping those rights, for example, the firearm control laws that have been passed limiting our privileges to remain battle ready. History serves us well in that it furnishes us with the realities that show increments in wrongdoing, neediness, shamefulness and by and large social turmoil is the aftereffect of Popular government as characterized by our present organization. The truth of the matter is that the governments thought of a popular government and our concept of a majority rule government are two unique implications totally. I talk about this since it straightforwardly influences the way that the United States government has removed not just your Constitutional rights yet in addition your undeniable ones. I have cited underneath a selection from a military manual that I once read that struck me as extremely significant. So as to comprehend the genuine significance of the word vote based system, analyze the meaning of the word as given by the 1928 American Military Training Manual and afterward contrast it and the meaning of the word Republic, taken from a similar manual. Presently recollect these definitions whenever you see an open authority or any other individual for that issue, remaining before the camera discussing majority rules system: Democracy: A legislature of the majority. Authority is determined through mass gathering or some other type of direct articulation. Results in a mobocracy. Demeanor toward property is radical, nullifying property rights. Disposition towards law is that the desire of the dominant part will control whether it be founded on consideration or administered by enthusiasm, bias and motivation without limitation or respect to results. Results in demagoguism, permit, tumult, discontent, and political agitation. Republic: Authority is inferred through the appointment of open authorities best fitted to speak to them. Demeanor for property is regard for laws and individual rights, also, a reasonable financial technique. Demeanor toward law is the organization of equity as per fixed standards and built up proof, with a severe respect to results. A more prominent number of residents and degree of region may be brought inside its compass. Evades the hazardous outrageous of either oppression or mobocracy. Results in diplomacy, freedom, reason, equity, satisfaction, and progress. (1928 American Military Training Manual) While our legislature was shaped as a republic, we have lost that structure and traded it for a majority rule government. The way that our progenitors had set up a Republic and not a Democracy is a key to understanding the current government. Our own will be a popular government inasmuch as our chosen authorities will cast a ballot which ever way the incredible breezes of exceptional interests blow, as long as they don't oversee equity in agreement with fixed standards, those standards being gone ahead in the Bill of Rights. Most by far of agents should be expelled from office and supplanted with those that will do a right and genuine activity without thought of individual addition. We have to set term cutoff points to keep profession lawmakers out of office and choose resident legislators who are genuine nationalists to our incredible country that are attempting to maintain what our ancestors had unique gone ahead in their penances as the inherent rights and Constitutional rights. There are not many incredible nationalists in places of intensity today. The stopping point, and I repeat, is that we are losing the entirety of our established rights, just as our natural rights. Every day, the administration is attempting to remove our Second Amendment rights also innumerable different rights. Just a consistent vigil will keep those that usurp force and control from doing as such. The Second Change states, and I quote: An all around managed local army, being important to the security of a free express, the privilege of the individuals to keep and remain battle ready, will not be infringed.(Bill of Rights) In the Second Amendment it does

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Accident Victim Interview Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Mishap Victim Interview Report - Essay Example The casualty was immersed in his activity and since he was wearing ear buds to ensure him with a lot of clamor he didn’t notice the bedlam. He was sadly gotten by the fireball after the blast and continued consume wounds. The speedy activity of his kindred collaborators and quick emergency treatment given to him spared his life. The Chemical Safety Board examined the reason for mishap and announced that a contractual worker had accidently exchanged a carbon steel pipe elbow with a low compound steel pipe elbow during the maintainance work. This caused burst in the channel prompting a disappointment mode called High-Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA) causing fireball. The CBS found that it was not exclusively the slip-up of the temporary worker, the organization had not educated that the elbows were extraordinary and the maiintainance contractual worker had not utilized any strategy like labeling to re-introduce the elbows in their position. The casualty was promptly hurried to the close by medical clinic where he was quickly analyzed and conceded for treatment. Specialists detailed 20 percent first degree minor skin consumes on covering his upper piece of the body. He remained in the medical clinic for about a week and missed work for one more week before recuperation. Some consume marks he despite everything supports on his body, anyway he is totally fit for work and expresses gratitude toward God for allowing him a subsequent life. The organization assumed liability to hold up under the expense of his treatment and the worker's guild additionally requested plunge remuneration for him till he recuperated and joined work once more. His organization has seen two more mishap cases before this one and they were lethal mishaps prompting extreme loss of capital and work. This mishap was trailed by OSHA visit to give security rules and check the wellbeing gauges in the processing plant. Following this mishap the CBS suggested that industry ought to have its own board of trustees to screen the wellbeing guidelines, risk ID and

Friday, August 21, 2020

Should stem cell transplants be done Essay Example for Free

Should undeveloped cell transplants be done Essay Foundational microorganism transplants are regularly one of the last decisions a patient needs to endure disease. All have just experienced chemotherapy, radiation treatment or both and this is the following stage in their treatment. Patients have two options in transplants autologous or allogeneic. In an autologous transplant undifferentiated organisms are gathered from the patient and afterward offered back to them sometime in the future after the body has been appropriately arranged for transplantation. In an allogeneic transplant undifferentiated organisms are gathered from a contributor, related or disconnected to the patient, at that point transplanted into the patient. Undifferentiated organisms can be gathered in two unique manners. One way is by means of bone marrow and the other is through fringe blood. The donor’s or patient’s bone marrow is gathered from the pelvis, femur or sternum, however the pelvis is the most widely recognized, and afterward injected into the patient through a focal line. In a fringe blood undeveloped cell assortment the contributor or the patient has their immature microorganisms gathered by means of a focal line in a procedure called apheresis. This can take various assortments to guarantee enough foundational microorganisms for transplantation. The two systems should be carefully arranged and all help meds given to guarantee effective assortment. There are numerous tumors that undeveloped cell transplants are usually utilized for. Different myeloma, intense lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin’s illness and ceaseless myelogenous leukemia are all the more normally treated with transplantation. Every one of these tumors has an alternate achievement rate, some have a higher achievement rates than with chemotherapy alone. Legitimate arrangement is significant for undeveloped cell transplants. All patients experience chemotherapy before transplantation. This is utilized to get out the bone marrow of cells to guarantee an effective transplant. Additionally most patients have just experienced chemotherapy in order to cure their malignant growth without needing an undeveloped cell transplant. Chemotherapy isn't the main prescription used to help in transplants. Patients by and large get G-CSF infusions to help elevate cell creation before gather and to help in engraftment. Transplantation isn't without dangers, patients can encounter exhaustion, contaminations, brought down red platelets and platelets or even unite versus have illness. These would all be able to be dealt with however with great strong consideration by the doctors and other care staff. Research shows that undeveloped cell transplants ought to be done in specific cases since it can permit a more prominent personal satisfaction by freeing the assemblage of malignant growth and advancing solid cell development and permitting a patient to have different choices of treatments to defeat disease. Numerous myeloma is one of the malignancies that can have fruitful results by an undeveloped cell transplant. Despite the fact that exploration shows this is certifiably not a genuine healing treatment for patients, it can give them a possibility at a more extended life. Both autologous and allogeneic transplants should be possible for various myeloma however allogeneic transplants are increasingly fruitful. Bruno et al, (2007) credits this to the failure of the pre-transplant chemotherapy to destroy all myeloma cells. Likewise allografting utilizing foundational microorganisms from a HLA-indistinguishable kin has higher achievement rates than transplants utilizing non HLA-indistinguishable kin. Another malignant growth that has effective results after transplantation is intense lymphoblastic leukemia. Kiehl et al, (2004) shows that up to 46% of patients who get an allogeneic transplant have effective ailment free endurance. Higher hazard patients and patients who are in their second total abatement ought to experience an undifferentiated organism transplant for a more prominent possibility at long haul endurance. The individuals who are in their third complete abatement, or have had acceptance disappointment, have a lower chance at an effective transplant with sickness free endurance. As expressed by Kiehl et al, (2004) these patients just have a 5-15% possibility of long haul endurance in spite of transplantation. The allogeneic benefactor can either be connected or disconnected, however the contributor of decision is a coordinated kin. This isn't constantly conceivable so transplantation ought to proceed with and random benefactor. Hodgkin’s malady can be effectively relieved with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, however a few patients will require transplantation eventually. Research by Sureda et al, (2001) shows that these patients can accomplish long haul endurance after an autologous undifferentiated organism transplant. These patients have commonly backslid after introductory chemotherapy or have hard-headed sickness. Less fortunate results after transplantation can be found in patients who have a short abatement period or cumbersome ailment at time of transplantation. This is certifiably not an integral factor in not endeavoring a transplant however. Immature microorganism transplants keep on being the main healing alternative for ceaseless myelogenous leukemia. The majority of these patients get an allogeneic transplant however some experience and autologous if no contributors are accessible. Maziaz and Mauro, (2004) show that an allogeneic transplant from a kin giver had a 60% sickness free endurance at 5 years. Autologous transplants have a 80% endurance rate at 5 years however these patients are just abating not really ailment free. Age, other wellbeing components, and contributor accessibility are variables to be considered preceding transplant. Maziarz and Mauro, (2003) raise the subject of non-transplant treatment by utilizing Imatinib. This drug is as yet being investigated with respect to its adequacy and remedial rates. This could be a possibility for patients who are too sick to even think about undergoing a transplant. Undifferentiated organism transplants are dependent on different prescriptions preceding and after transplantation. Chemotherapies are utilized to remove the bone marrow and prepared it for creation of new solid cells. Granulocyte province invigorating variable, G-CSF, is utilized pre and post transplantation. This drug aids cell creation for an effective collect and afterward for fruitful engraftment. High portion chemotherapies, for example, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin and Etoposide are regularly utilized preceding transplantation. (Schlemmer et al, 2006, Straka et al, 20003) These prescriptions prepared the bone marrow for transplantation by crushing cells, both great and awful. Older patients and patients who can't endure full portion treatment are frequently given dosages at a diminished rate. This doesn't diminish the odds of an effective transplantation. (Straka et al, 2003) Without decimation of all cells fruitful engraftment couldn't occur. The undifferentiated organisms would be overwhelmed by dangerous cells and the infection would proceed. This is one motivation behind why so much chemotherapy is offered preceding transplantation. Granulocyte state invigorating element, G-CSF, is a significant piece of undifferentiated organism transplantation. It invigorates the bone marrow to deliver more leukocytes. G-CSF is utilized both pre and post transplantation. At the point when utilized pre transplantation it helps produce more lymphocytes that are then gathered for transplantation. Post transplantation it is utilized to help engraftment and diminishing neutropenia. Samaras et al, (2010) states the utilization of G-CSF can decrease the opportunity to engraftment and conceivably bring down the hazard for post-transplant contaminations. There are distinctive symptoms and intricacies that can emerge from transplantation. As the body is set up for transplantation, the body is deprived of its normal safeguards against disease. With no white cells to help fight against shrewd diseases a patient can turn out to be incredibly sick. They are likewise in danger for iron deficiency and thrombocytopenia as the chemotherapy additionally demolishes red platelets and platelets. This is one explanation patients are kept in the emergency clinic for a long time during high portions of chemotherapy. They are likewise at proceeded with hazard after transplantation until engraftment and cell recuperation occurs. Another significant symptom that can happen is join versus have illness (GVHD). This is the place the benefactor cells see the recipient’s body as remote and assault the body. There are 4 evaluations of join versus have sickness and they can either be intense or constant. Intense GVHD for the most part occurs as the new cells are engrafting into the host body. Constant GVHD can happen years after the fact and is progressively serious in impacts to the body. In the intense periods of GVHD the patient can be dealt with and relieved by the utilization of momentary immunosuppressant treatment and steroids. Long haul immunosuppression can reduce the impacts on the body in ceaseless GVHD. This in itself can prompt diseases because of constant immunosuppression. (Kiehl et al, 2004, Bruno et al, 2007) Most patients experience some degree of exhaustion while recuperating from transplants. This can be exacerbated by sickness, regurgitating, poor hunger, rest issues and opposite symptoms of transplantation. As patients experience more weakness they become less slanted to do advance exercises. It is imperative to treat all indications viably and urge patients to be up and moving. This can abbreviate medical clinic stays and diminish the odds of contaminations. (Programmer et al, 2006) Stem cell transplants however entangled and unsafe are as yet probably the best decision for some patients. They can be the last possibility at endurance for patients just as the best choice for the chance of longer life living with disease. Backslide and disappointment of transplant are dangers that patients decide to take. There is a perplexing arrangement of chemotherapy and strong prescriptions for transplant, however without these, transplantation would not be conceivable by any stretch of the imagination. In spite of the fact that symptoms can occur, the advantages far exceed the dangers related with transplantation. Research shows that immature microorganism transplants ought to be done in specific cases since it can permit a more prominent personal satisfaction by freeing the assortment of malignancy and advancing solid cell development and permitting a patient to have different choices of treatments to conquer disease. As the years proceed and further research is done undifferentiated cell transplants will turn into the initial phase in thinking about malignant growth patients.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Sample College Research Paper

Sample College Research PaperThere are many reasons why people need to choose a sample college research paper. The main reason is that such a paper can serve as an expert witness to tell the court whether the student has understood and gained knowledge about the topic under study. Moreover, they can also be used as exhibits when testifying to a court.Students who need help with their subjects need this. Some students would like to do the research on their own and would want to complete it in a single day. This will require more time than what is necessary for them to finish the project in a couple of days or so.A research paper can be a very useful tool for them. It is a trial run to gauge the level of knowledge they have and whether they need additional material. Also, it can provide them with a number of questions to ask when the full version is given. They can then put those questions together to produce the study they need.By choosing the right paper, the student would also have many questions and doubts to answer. It helps them out of any difficulties that might arise. In addition, it would also allow them to make a professional-looking impression to their future employers.However, before a student has the task of choosing his/her professional papers, he or she should first come up with the list of all the topics they want to focus on. Once they have come up with the topic, they should consider how much time they can dedicate to it. Some people prefer to go for a broad overview whereas others would want to do a more detailed study. Each case has its own requirements.A sample college research paper can be bought from books and websites. It can also be made by the student from scratch by thinking about the topics, the subject and the various parts of the study. Once the different pieces of information have been collected, the student can fill them up and submit them to the school or university.Overall, the research paper has a big role to play in preparing t he student to compete against others in the campus. The paper should not only help the student gain knowledge but should also encourage him to keep working hard in order to reach the top.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Aristotle And Confucius Maintained An Ethical Position On...

Both Aristotle and Confucius maintained an ethical position concerning capital punishment. While we can safely assume Aristotle believed capital punishment is appropriate under certain circumstances, Confucius generally argued against the death penalty. Nevertheless, both ethical viewpoints find some common ground where capital punishment can be justified. Aristotle s theory of justice offers an outline for a system of justice, of which the death penalty for appropriate crimes is acceptable. His underlying assumption is that right and wrong are defined by the actions and values held by the virtuous and the depraved people in a society. He beilieved that people come to understand the concepts of justice and injustice by observing those in society considered to be just or unjust. The ultimate authority for truth are the virtuous individuals who analyze and act in ways that resonate with rationality, according to Aristotle. Therefore, Aristotle looked to the ways virtuous people behaved as justification for his claims. Aristotelian justice is known as justice through rectification, and operates on the basis of the following six assumptions: 1. People existing in society are in possession of certain goods. (What constitutes as a good is debatable, but assumed to represent needs, as in Abraham Maslow s â€Å"Hierarchy of Needs†.). 2. If a person takes goods from another person, then it requires principled justification or the consent from the person of whom the goods were taken. 3.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Schizophrenia Vs. Bipolar Disorder - 972 Words

Schizophrenia vs. Bipolar Disorder By Jenita Johnson October 29, 2015 Schizophrenia vs. Bipolar Disorder There are many mental illnesses that are diagnosed and common amongst adults and children today. The two most common mental illnesses are schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These illnesses are considered the two most functional psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition with an increase in severity of its symptoms but always has some background to its symptoms. Bipolar disorder is generally a condition with expectation of a full recovery between episodes. Even though both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have somewhat the same symptoms I believe they are different and schizophrenia is more severe in treatment†¦show more content†¦The positive symptoms that these disorders have in common are hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, paranoia, etc. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia can also resemble that of bipolar disorder these are apathy, extreme emotional withdrawal, low energy, social isolation, lack of affect, etc. These positive and negative symptoms are similar to both schizophrenia and a manic episode. With these similarities there is chance that many patients have been misdiagnosed especially in children they cause years of improper treatment with destructive results. For example the child can be given the wrong medication for a disorder that is not associated with what is really going on with the child. In the article by Stanford University they give an example that â€Å"treating a child who actually has pediatric bipolar disorder with Ritalin for a supposed case of ADHD. Giving such a child a stimulant can lead to mood destabilization.† (Day, 2005). These are the symptoms of bipolar disorder it was formerly known as manic-depression but is a biological disorder of the brain that are characterized by debilitating mood swings. Symptoms fall into two categories mania and depression. The symptoms of mania as explained in the fact sheet by the World Federation of Mental Health are â€Å"Euphoric or extremely irritable mood, distractibility, accelerated and/or delusional thinking, decreased inhibitions, and increased physical activity and

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Music Analysis about Frederic Chopin

Question: Discuss about theMusic Analysis about Frederic Chopin. Answer: Introduction Khatia Buniatishvili is a pianist who was born in the year 1987 and made her career internationally as a concert pianist. Khatia Buniatishvili - Prelude No. 4 in E Minor -Chopin is the performance in which she plays the piano and the musical analysis of that was needless to speech which has been fascinating the audience with the music and it was not resistible[1]. While talking about the instrumentation here it was piano in this concert where her fingers where crawling on the keys of the keyboard giving the soothing music and left a pleasant feeling leaving the atmosphere dreamy with the flawless music[2]. The articulation and phrasing of the music was not lacking its rhythm in which we can find out the complete focus on the fast playing of the instrument, with the usage of superficial notes and figures. The melody was aiming to be elegant and light in its performance. The music was found to be very lyrical and warm[3]. The rhythm from the instrument was found to be emphasizing the agogics which had retained the fine play and it was accelerating indoors of the bar. By hitting the black and white keys it produces the distinctive sound. The piano is mostly used in orchestra which adds the sound to the musical theme. References Burkholder, J.P. and Grout, D.J., 2014.A History of Western Music: Ninth International Student Edition. WW Norton Company. Martinez, E.M., 2016. The Life and Times of Colonel Antonino Buenaventura (1904-1996) 1998 National Artist for Music.Musika Jornal,10. YouTube. 2016.Khatia Buniatishvili - Chopin - Prelude No. 4 in E Minor. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Oct. 2016].

Thursday, April 16, 2020

The Best Last-Minute SAT Study Tips

After weeks and weeks of studying, the SAT is finally here. The long nights and weekends you spent working with tutors, studying on your own, and convincing your parents that you’ve done your SAT prep homework are coming to an end (hopefully). And while the New SAThas made waves throughout the college admissions world, the foundation is still the same: a long exam. With the test creeping up quickly, what can you do to prepare during the few days leading up to the test? Sleep. Yes, seriously. You might think that studying a ton and staying up late will help you learn more, but that’s not always the case. By sleeping and getting more rest, you’re allowing your body to recover from the mental stimulation you go through on a daily basis. Surprisingly, you’ll learn better and retain more information by resting. While cramming the night before might help some students, it’s not the best strategy. Eat healthy meals. And I’m not talking about a Chewy bar for breakfast on the morning of the test. Waking up 30 minutes earlier so you can get a solid breakfast in can help give you the energy to last the full length of the exam. The SAT isn’t short, especially considering you’re sitting at a desk, straining your brain for a few hours at a time. Move it (and a bonus tip). Studies show a bunch of helpful information. And in this case, getting up and moving around while studying can actually help you digest the information more. Studying for math today at your desk? Study math tomorrow at the kitchen table. And the next day at Starbucks. Even if you’re sitting on the toilet, a new environment will force your body to focus on the information and not rely on your surroundings for clues. *Bonus: Sitting in the same seat everyday in class can actually help you retain information. If you sit in the back row during Econ every single time, make sure to sit in that same seat while you take exams. Studies actually have shown that you’ll remember more if you’re accustomed to what’s around you. See that crack on the wall? You might have been looking at it when the teacher was explaining supply and demand. Even a small glance during your exam might help you remember. *Extra Bonus: Don’t study in bed. Your brain naturally associates bed with sleep, so you’ll probably wind up tired, not focused, or possibly passed out, drooling on your notebook. Yes, I know I said you should sleep - but probably not best in the middle of a study session. Study Confidently. It’s normal to focus on the things you’re not so great at. But don’t neglect your strengths. Sometimes, studying what you’re good at can build positive momentum and can help you feel good about the material you’re not so great at. And while you still might get questions wrong, you’ll simply feel better about yourself, and will be more willing to put in the effort to get the questions right. So what’s next? Focus on the SAT now. Next, you can come up with your list of colleges and focus on where you want to go. If you haven’t yet, you can use ’s search to find students with similar grades and test scores as you to find out where they applied and were accepted.

Friday, March 13, 2020

Discuss the pathogenesis of measles virus infection The WritePass Journal

Discuss the pathogenesis of measles virus infection Conclusion Discuss the pathogenesis of measles virus infection IntroductionInfection and SpreadSymptomsSubacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE)VaccinationConclusionRelated Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Introduction Measles virus (MV) is a member of the paramyxovirus family and has a single stranded RNA genome.   The viral genome encodes for six structural proteins: Haemagglutin (H), Fusion (F), Nucleoprotein (N), Phosphoprotein (P), Large (L) polymerase protein, and Matrix (M) protein and two non-structural proteins: C and V (Griffin,   2010). The structure of the virus is shown below.  Ã‚   Fig 1.   The structure of the Measles virus The majority of measles cases occur in children and in those who are fit and healthy, results in life long immunity without complications.   Measles virus has been eliminated in the western world since 2000 through an efficient vaccine programme, however, it is a different scenario in developing countries were deaths arise due to lack of vaccine administration and malnourishment of children (Fontana et al, 2008).  Ã‚   For example in 2008, 164 000 people died from measles virus of these 95% were in low-income countries (   Although infection with MV produces an efficient immune response that is maintained for the rest of the individuals life, it also results in a transient state of immunosuppression that can last for several weeks.   This leaves the patient susceptible to secondary infections by opportunistic pathogens which account for the majority of measles associated deaths (Sevet-Delprat   et al, 2000).  Ã‚   The exact me chanism of the immunosuppression is still unknown however many theories have been suggested. Infection and Spread The MV is spread through aerosol transmission in the cough or sneeze of an infected person.   The virus is extremely contagious and can remain in the air or on a surface for up to two hours (Stalkup, 2002).   The route of entry for the virus is through the respiratory tract and once infected, the virus will incubate for an average of 10-12 days before any symptoms are seen.   Infection is initiated by the attachment of the H protein to the host cell receptors, which results in the fusion of the envelope of the virus with the host cell membrane.   This fusion of membranes causes the release of viral RNA into the host cell cytoplasm.   After the RNA has replicated, using host cell machinery, new virus particles are assembled using the M protein and bud from the host cell membrane to infect other susceptible cells (Swart, 2008).   The host cell receptors for the measles virus are CD46, a complement regulatory protein that is found on all nucleated cells and the Signalling Ly mphocytic Activation Molecule (SLAM/CD150) which is found on the surface of both T and B lymphocytes as well as macrophages and mature Dendritic cells (DC) (Yanagi et al, 2006).   In vitro studies have found that vaccine strains of the measles virus use CD46 and SLAM as their receptor however wild-type MV only recognizes CD150 (Ferreira et al, 2010).   There has been some debate over the exact cell that is involved in the initial infection with MV.   It had previously been thought that the virus infected epithelial cells lining the nasopharynx (Stalkup   et al, 2002) however more recent studies have shown that these cells do not bear the MV receptors SLAM which facilitate wild-type viral infection therefore further studies are required to identify this unknown receptor .   It has been suggested that alveolar macrophages and DC lining the respiratory tract are the initial cells involved in measles infection.  Ã‚   This was demonstrated in a study using mice that expressed humanized SLAM.   These mice were infected intranasally with wild type measles virus expressing green fluorescent protein.   The nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) was then extracted from these mice at different time points (1,2 or 3 days).   Results showed that alveolar macrophages were the first cells to be infected by the measles virus and not the epithelial cells (Ferreira et al, 2010). DC’s are the main antigen presenting cells of the immune system and are used by other viruses to infect lymphocytes for (example the HIV virus) (Witte et al, 2008).   Therefore DC may provide an important route of transport for MV to secondary lymphoid tissue.   The role of DCs in measles infection is further indicated by the identification of DC-SIGN which is an accessory receptor that has been identified on MV susceptible cells and is thought to assist MV infection of CD150 expressing DCs (Yanagi, 2006).   Furthermore, large numbers of DC-SIGN positive DCs have been found to be present in the epithelium of the respiratory tract which demonstrates their potential primary role in MV infection of (Ludlow et al, 2010 ; Witte et al, 2008). An alternative theory is that epithelial cells are infected in the latter stages of infection by lymphoid cells facilitating viral spread by the respiratory route.   This would mean that epithelial cells are infected at the basolateral cell surface rather than the apical surface.   This was demonstrated by a study that looked at mutated MV strains that could not bind to the as yet unidentified Epithelial Cell receptor (EpR) but could still recognise the SLAM receptor.   Results showed that the macaques developed the rash but could not shed the virus which suggests that the EpR is a basolaterally expressed protein that is important for the spread of the virus at the infective stage (Leonard, et al, 2008).   A study by Ludlow (2010) supported these findings by showing that wild type MV could not infect primary columnar epithelial cells by the apical surface further demonstrating the potential role of epithelial cells in latter stages of infection rather than initial stages as p reviously thought. In response to viral infection the innate immune system responds by producing inflammatory cytokines to protect cells from viral infection.   These cytokines include type 1 interferons (IFN) such as   IFNÃŽ ± and ÃŽ ² which are induced in response to RNA viruses.   IFNs induce an anti-viral state in neighbouring cells and increase the expression of class 1 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules on the infected cell surface which will present the viral antigens to CD8+ T cells.   CD8+ T cells clear the infection by cytotoxic T cell mediated killing of the infected cell (Abbas Ltchtman, 2005).   To overcome these host cell defences, viruses have ways to evade the immune system.   MV virus protein V and C have been shown to downregulate IFN production in vitro and this includes both attenuated and wild type strains (Fontana et al, 2008).   Through the inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokines MV can infect more host cells.   MV may also use the innate immune system to enhance viral spread and pathogenesis by using Toll like receptors (TLRs) which are found on the surfaces of cells that activate the immune system by recognising bacterial and viral pathogens.   The binding of TRL2 on human monocytes by MV H protein has been shown to induce production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) which upregulates expression of SLAM the primary receptor for MV (Beiback et al, 2002). Once the virus is picked up by antigen presenting cells it is carried to the secondary lymphatic tissue were it can replicate in T cell, B cells and activated monocytes with lymphocytes being the main target cell of MV infection (de Swart et al, 2007).   These infected cells can be seen in the blood 7-9 days after infection (Griffin, 2010).   It is thought that through these infected lymphoid cells that the virus is able to infect epithelial and endothelial cells lining organs including the liver, brain and skin (Moench et al, 1988).   In order for MV to infect these organs it must overcome these endothelial cell barriers.  Ã‚   It has been shown in cell culture that wild type MV infection may infect endothelial cells by increasing the expression and activation of leukocyte integrins which bring infected T cells into close contact with these cells leading to their infection (Dittmar et al, 2008). Symptoms The initial symptoms of MV are very similar to those of the flu including runny nose, conjunctivitis and cough which is accompanied by a fever of 104-1050F that lasts up to 4 days (Stalkup, 2002).   The characteristic feature of MV is the red rash that appears beginning on the face and behind the ears, which spreads to the rest of the body (please see Fig 2 below).   During this time the person is highly contagious and remains so until the rash disappears ( Fig 2 shows a child with an extensive rash caused by the Measles virus. Ref: Small white spots known as Koplik spots may also be seen in the inside the mouth which is a diagnostic indicator of measles and appear one day before the rash (Perry Halsey, 2004). The appearance of the rash is due to the immune systems attack of the systemic infection of epithelial cells and biopsies of the rash have shown infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes in the rhesus monkey (Permur et al, 2003). An individual who in infected with measles virus will recover within about 10-14 days but may remain vulnerable to secondary infections including pneumonia and diarrhoea for a few weeks.  Ã‚   This was first noted by von Pirquet who noticed that individuals recently infected with the MV failed to respond to the tuberculin skin test and this has led to many studies into the reasons for this immune suppression (Griffin et al, 1994). One reason for the immunosuppression seen after a measles infection is the switch from a T helper 1 (Th1) CD4 response to a T helper 2 (Th2) CD4 response.   Initial MV infection results in the production of a Th1 response which is necessary to eliminate the pathogen and is marked by increased production of IFNÃŽ ³ however as the rash is cleared this changes to a Th2 response which is important in the production of measles specific antibodies (Moss et al, 2004).   Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 have been shown to be elevated for weeks in those who have had MV (Moss et al, 2002).   IL-10 suppresses the immune system by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage activation therefore may have a key role in failure to generate a Th1 response after MV infection (Sato et al, 2008). IL-12 is primarily produced by activated macrophages and DCs and has a pivotal role in the generation of a cell mediated immune response as well as directing CD4+ T cells to differentiate into Th1 cells (Abbas Lichtman, 2005).   Studies have shown that MV infection of DCs inhibits IL-12 production which would lead to an environment favouring a Th2 cell response (Servert-Delprat et al, 2000).   Furthermore peripheral blood monocytic cells taken from patients with measles have been shown to have a prolonged decrease in IL-12 (Atabani et al, 2001).   Stimulation of DCs through TLR4 also results in inhibition of IL-12 in mice expressing human SLAM receptor (Hahm et al, 2007). As lymphocytes are the main targets for MV infection and replication the immunosuppression seen after infection may be due to as decrease in circulating lymphocytes.   However, studies have shown that lymphocyte numbers quickly return to normal levels and therefore cannot account for the immune suppression seen weeks after infection (Griffin, 2010). Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) SSPE is a rare neurological complication of MV infection that affects 1 in a million measles cases although there is an increased risk with children infected with the measles virus before age 2 and males more than females (Norrby Kristensson, 1997).   The characteristic symptoms of SSPE are deterioration of mental and motor functions as a result of destruction of brain tissue.   These symptoms typically begin to manifest 7-10 years after primary viral infection and ultimately result in death within 2 years (Stalkup, 2002).   Patients with SSPE have high levels of measles specific antibody circulating in their blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) yet the virus is not eliminated (Barrero et al, 2003).   It is thought that the virus mutates inside the neurons which allows it to evade the immune system however these mutations may alter the host cells leading to the generation of the immune response (Gutierrez et al, 2010).   However the mechanism by which neurons are infected i s still unknown as no receptors have been identified.   There is no cure for SSPE although treatment of individuals with Interferon ÃŽ ± and Isoprinosine has been shown to slow down the progression of symptoms in some individuals (Gascon et al, 1993). Vaccination The first MV vaccine was produced in the 1960s which was formalin-inactivated with alum.   This vaccine produced a condition known as atypical measles which resulted in some individuals experiencing symptoms which were often worse than wild-type measles, when they came into contact with someone who had measles (deSwart, 2008).   In 1963, Enders measles vaccine was developed which was a live attenuated vaccine (Stalkup, 2002).   This vaccine is grown in cell culture fibroblasts from chicken embryos and is unable to produce its full pathogenic effect but induces an adequate life long immune response (PÏ‹tz et al, 2003).   The measles vaccine has resulted in a 99% fall in the number of measles cases that were previously seen annually in the United States (Stalkup, 2002).   MV could potentially be irradicated but this is dependent on high vaccine coverage.   The World Health Organization (WHO) has a policy in place which has set a goal of reducing the death rate from MV in children under 5 by 2015 (   MV infection can also lead to blindness in children who are Vitamin A deficient and the WHO have recommended that all children with measles are given vitamin A supplementation to combat blindness (Semba and Bloem, 2004). The measles vaccine is part of the Measles Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine that is given in two doses.   The vaccine is administered intramuscularly and the first injection is given to children around 13 months (   The vaccine is not given before this age because these children will have maternal antibodies which would interfere with the vaccine and not generate an appropriately high enough immune response (Moss et al, 2004).   A second dose of the MMR vaccine is given to preschool children as a booster as 2-5% of individuals fail to produce an appropriate protective immunity to the first inoculation (   New methods of delivery of MMR vaccine have been investigated such as the use of aerosol vaccine which would mimic natural measles infection and the use of DNA vaccine administration.   Aerosol vaccine has been found to generate an effective immune response that is equal to that of the currently used vaccine and may also overcome the interference from maternal antibodies however clinical trials are still in progress (Heno-Restrepo et al, 2009). Furthermore, trials into the use of DNA vaccines have proposed a potential to vaccinate children as young as four months (Pasetti et al, 2009). The MMR vaccine has been in the public eye for many years as a result of a paper by Wakefield and colleagues in 1998 which claimed that there was a link between the administration of the MMR vaccine and the development of autism (Farrington et al, 2001).   Many studies have been carried out to either prove or disprove this study as these claims led to fear amongst parents regarding vaccination of their children and uptake fell to 80% between 2003 and 2004 as a result of this (Bedford Ellimen, 2010).   As stated in the introduction MV is so contagious even a minor drop in vaccine coverage can lead to a large number of cases.   In 2010 after an extensive investigation by the General Medical council it was finally confirmed that the paper by Wakefield was unfounded (Godlee et al, 2001). Conclusion Although cases of MV are rarely seen in this country it results in the death of many children in the developing countries.   Currently vaccination is given at 13 months of age however many studies are ongoing that could potentially provide a vaccine that could be administered earlier resulting in children being protected earlier and limiting hosts for the virus.   Furthermore, malnutrition is one of the major contributing factors in the deaths from measles virus, tackling this problem would also decrease the mortality rate.   As stated above MV poses a problem in that infection generates a life long immune response but also leaves the host susceptible to secondary infections. The exact mechanism for this is not yet known therefore more work is needed to answer this problem and potentially combat this immune suppression. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Environmental Compliance and Safety Research Paper

Environmental Compliance and Safety - Research Paper Example This was evidenced by lack of coordination between the various agencies and companies involved in oil drilling operations during the disaster. This paper examines corrective mechanisms employed to control the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and agencies involved in the exercise. In addition, the paper explores the compliance regulations violated during the exercise. The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was triggered by an explosion in the British Petroleum (BP) operated Macondo well on April 20, 2010. The explosion killed eleven crewmembers of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig and several others suffered various levels of injuries (Ramseur, 2011). The blowout destroyed the drilling platform and it sunk two days later. Following the explosion, oil leakage was discovered on the sea floor and it continued discharging crude oil until its containment on July 15, 2010 (Uhlmann, 2011). According to Ramseur and Hargety (2011), over 4.9 million barrels were discharged into the water during the period. However, the exact volume of crude oil discharged remains unknown. The oil discharge was so voluminous that it contaminated the beaches of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Florida (Ramseur, 2011). The oil spill caused significant environmental and economic damage to the region. Commercial activities in the Gulf of Mexico especially commercial fishing and tourism were disrupted. Consequently, livelihoods of many people depending on these sectors were adversely affected. The impact on aquatic life was equally disastrous, killing numerous animals and plants in addition to polluting their habitats. The exact environmental, economic and social effects of the oil spill remain unknown up to date. However, the adverse environmental effects are expected to continue being felt in the affected region for many years, as demonstrated by the earlier Exxon Valdez oil discharge in 1989 (Uhlmann, 2011).

Sunday, February 9, 2020

The Role of the Nurse Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Role of the Nurse - Essay Example Craig and colleagues (2006) discuss that assessment is a crucial first step in the delivery of health care, and often serves as the initial point of patient/nurse communication or contact. During the initial meeting with the patient, it is usually the nurse’s role to make a thorough evaluation of the patient (from head to toe) as a means of establishing baseline parameters for the patient’s general condition. This baseline is also the point of reference for nurses in order to monitor the patient’s progress from their point of admission to their point of discharge (Craig,, 2006). The assessment as carried out by the nurse would also serve to guide the development of the nursing care plan. The role of the nurse in the assessment is to ensure a holistic evaluation of the patient, including the patient’s needs and the purpose of the medical consult (Rosdahl and Kowalski, 2011). As the assessment is carried out, the health issues of the patient – from the physiological to the psychological – would be established. During the assessment, it is also the nurse’s task to establish the patient’s medical history, which would include major and relevant health issues he has suffered in the past, including previous surgeries, allergies, and current medications (Rosdahl and Kowalski, 2011). ... 1). Frequency of sunbathing without any sun block as well as frequency of tanning sessions Question 1: At what time of the day do you usually sunbathe without using sun block? Rationale: It is important to determine the time of day the patient has usually sunbathed because there are certain times of the day when the rays of the sun are strongest, and exposure to the sun during these times increases one’s risk for getting skin cancer (Leiter and Garb, 2008). There is a need to establish whether or not the patient has often sunbathed at 11 am to 4 am where the risk for exposure to UV rays is at its peak (Leiter and Garb, 2008). Question 2: How often do you get sunburns? Rationale: It is also important to establish how often the patient has suffered sunburns because the repeated healing and burning of the skin during sunburns have a cumulative effect (Qureshi,, 2012). Every sunburn incident represents skin damage and repeated incidents of sunburn would cumulatively increas e one’s risk for developing skin cancer (Qureshi,, 2012). It is important to ask this of the patient in order to determine the level of risk she has already exposed herself to. 2) Mole is irregularly shaped two toned papule, with ill-defined light brown to pink medial and lower borders Question 1: Describe the changes which your mole has undergone? Rationale: Any irregularities in the shape of a mole often signify possible melanoma; more often than not, ill-defined moles signal skin cancer (Psaty,, 2010). Question 2: Do you notice any pain in the area of the mole? Rationale: Pain on the moles may qualify the mole to be a suspicious mole which may also signal skin cancer or melanoma (Psaty,, 2010). 3. Rapid change in the

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Subhash Chandra Bose Essay Example for Free

Subhash Chandra Bose Essay Subhash Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 at Cuttack, in Orissa. He was the sixth son of Janakinath and Prabhavati Bose. Subhash was an excellent student and after school joined the Presidency College, Calcutta, where he studied philosophy, a subject he was interest in. As a young boy Subhash felt neglected among his 8 siblings. At his English school he suffered under the discrimination faced by Indians which made him even sadder. He wanted to work for the poor but his father, had other ideas. He sent Subhash to England to appear for the Indian Civil Service. In July 1920, barely eight months later Subhash Chandra Bose appeared in the Civil Service Examination and passed it with distinction. But he didnt want to be a member of the bureaucracy and resigned from the service and returned to India. Back home, he participated in the freedom movement along with Deshbandhu C. R. Das. He was thrown into jail but that only made him more determined. Subhash joined the congress and rose to its Presidentship in 1938 a post he held for 2 years. In 1939, when the Second World War started Gandhiji and other leaders were against doing anything anti-Britain. But Subhash thought differently. He knew, for instance, that the fall of the Roman Empire had led to the freedom of its colonies. He decided to seek foreign help for his cause of freeing India. He was arrested and kept in his house under detention. On January 17, 1941, while everyone was asleep, Bose slipped out of his house into a waiting car. Disguised as a Muslim religious teacher, Bose managed to reach Peshawar two days later. Bose went to Italy, Germany and even Russia to seek help but without much use. Subash decided to organize Indians on his own. He landed in Singapore and grouped Indians there into the Indian National Army or the Azad Hind Fauj and declared himself the temporary leader of the free Indian government. Japan, Germany and Italy recognizied Subhashs government and the whole of India rejoiced. The INA marched to Andaman and Nicobar islands, liberating and renaming them as Shaheed and Swaraj islands. On March 18, 1944, it crossed the Burmese border and reached Manipur where free Indias banner was raised with the shouts of Jai Hind and Netaji Zindabad. But heavy rain prevented any further movement and the units had to fall back. Even then Netaji was determined. On August 17, 1945, he issued a Special Order to the INA which said that Delhi is still our goal. He then wanted to go to Russia to seek Soviet help to fight the British. But the ill-fated plane in which he was flying, crashed in Taipei on August 18, 1945, resulting in his death. Some people believe that Subhash Chandra Bose didnt die, that he faked his own crash to escape the British who wanted to arrest him. There were even reports of Bose living in Russia and other foreign countries, even some claims of having seen him as a sadhu, but none were ever proved and today his death in the plane crash is the accepted version.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Biography of William Edward Burghardt DuBois :: Biographies Pan-Africanist Racism Essays

Biography of William Edward Burghardt DuBois William Edward Burghardt DuBois, to his admirers, was by spirited devotion and scholarly dedication, an attacker of injustice and a defender of freedom. A harbinger of Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism, he died in self-imposed exile in his home away from home with his ancestors of a glorious past—Africa. Labeled as a "radical," he was ignored by those who hoped that his massive contributions would be buried along side of him. But, as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote, "history cannot ignore W.E.B. DuBois because history has to reflect truth and Dr. DuBois was a tireless explorer and a gifted discoverer of social truths. His singular greatness lay in his quest for truth about his own people. There were very few scholars who concerned themselves with honest study of the black man and he sought to fill this immense void. The degree to which he succeeded disclosed the great dimensions of the man." His Formative Years W.E.B. DuBois was born on February 23, 1868 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. At that time Great Barrington had perhaps 25, but not more than 50, Black people out of a population of about 5,000. Consequently, there were little signs of overt racism there. Nevertheless, its venom was distributed through a constant barrage of suggestive innuendoes and vindictive attitudes of its residents. This mutated the personality of young William from good natured and outgoing to sullen and withdrawn. This was later reinforced and strengthened by inner withdrawals in the face of real discriminations. His demeanor of introspection haunted him throughout his life. While in high school DuBois showed a keen concern for the development of his race. At age fifteen he became the local correspondent for the New York Globe. And in this position he conceived it his duty to push his race forward by lectures and editorials reflecting upon the need of Black people to politicized themselves. DuBois was naturally gifted intellectually and took pleasurable pride in surpassing his fellow students in academic and other pursuits. Upon graduation from high school, he, like many other New England students of his caliber, desired to attend Harvard. However, he lacked the financial resources to go to that institution. But with the aid of friends and family, and a scholarship he received to Fisk College (now University), he eagerly headed to Nashville, Tennessee to further his education. This was DuBois' first trip south. And in those three years at Fisk (1885–1888) his knowledge of the race problem became more definite.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Exclusionary Rule Essay

Constitutional Law pertains to the account of fundamental laws of nation-states and other political associations. Thus, constitutions refer to the foundation and structure for government and could limit or characterize the power and system of political institutions to carry out new laws and policies (Chemerinsky, 2003). The constitution sets the boundaries of new laws, thus, the entire state is subjected to the constitution. The Fourteenth amendment of the United States which covers citizenship and civil rights is where the Fourth Amendment sprouted from. In recognition of equality among citizens discarding race, ethnicity and religion, the fourth amendment was made to protect the rights of the citizens and those are the right to due process and to privacy and security of his properties. This fourth amendment was created in 1914 was at the federal level and was only adapted by all states of America. The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution (Search and Seizure) includes the Exclusionary Rule which protects citizens of the United States from illegal searches of their private properties (Sundberg). Any unwarranted intrusions made by the police force to the privacy of an individual are prohibited by law. For a search to be valid the warrant to search should be able to describe in detail the items to be searched, the location and facilities to be confiscated (Roberts, 2007). This lets the people enjoy their right to feel secure of their houses, documents, papers and other properties that are considered private. The rule also gives the citizen a right to due process as the police force cannot just confiscate and search them without the needed papers. Furthermore, this law also abides by the philosophy of deontology wherein the action is judged to be right or wrong if the root of the action itself is based upon the duty and obligation of a person (Darwall, 12). Thus, the means upon which evidence is acquired is more important than the value of the evidence gathered. Since this rule encompass criminal cases only, even if the police found a gun or any evidence that points out that the man who owns the property upon which the evidence was found is indeed the perpetrator, this evidence will be considered invalid in court and will not make any impact on the courts decision given that the police did not have the warrant to search the individuals property. In addition to that, a search that is made in areas that is not specified by the warrant is not allowed even if evidences are found within the parameters of the facility that was searched. The positive side of this law is that it protects the rights of every citizen against illegal searches by the police, thus securing their privacy. This also discourages illegal searches and bounds the police to their duty by following the law. However, the downside of this rule is that if evidence is found in illegally searched areas, even if it can very well summarize the outcome of the case will be put to waste for the simple reason that there was no warrant of arrest or it was not indicated in the warrant that such place is included in the search. The absence of that piece of paper means a lot in the proceedings, and such important evidences are discarded. For example, a weapon that is found in the car of a murderer with his finger print on it would still be useless in court since it was searched illegally. Which is more important then, the evidence or how the evidence was obtained? Perhaps for us to fully assess the situation it is a need for us to analyze a certain scenario. For the purpose of further understanding the gravity of the situation let us assume that a bomb explosion took place in a residential neighborhood rendering 10 people killed and 20 other wounded. Right after the explosion operatives responded in just 3 minutes given that the place is in close proximity to the police station. The initial assumption was for it to be a terroristic act. Since the neighborhood was closely knit almost everyone knew something about everybody. They denied that such ruthless murderer could be one of their residents but a policeman guided by his instinct was convinced that a prominent resident of the neighborhood did the bombing. The resident was bound to leave the place the day after but since it was a Sunday, the court was close and cannot issue a warrant plus the fact that they cannot link him to the bomb explosion. The policemen decided to search the house of the resident without the warrant and found evidence. Materials of making a bomb were found at his residence. They arrested him but after years the case was dismissed because of the exclusion rule. First and foremost, there was no warrant and second they filed motion to suppress the evidence. The law supports the defendants claim and sets him free. This issue is a philosophical debate of the deontological and consequentialist groups (Philip, 2002). Deontological perspective would argue that the fault was in the part of the officials since they did not do their duty. To act from duty is to do the right thing and it is more important that catching the perpetrator before he leaves the town. The obedience of duty is placed in higher value as the result of their act. Even if they found the evidence and arrested the man responsible for the bombing that killed 10 people, it is still not valid. They did not abide to their duty. â€Å"A human action is morally good if and only if it is done from duty† (Kant, 397–399). Consequential or Utilitarianism would say that the act of searching without a warrant is the right thing to do since they found who did the bombing. The measures upon which the police undertook to get to the perpetrator is not important as long as the greater good for the most number of people was realized, and that is justice. It does not matter if there is no warrant and the police invaded the house of a private citizen as long as the truth was discovered and the person responsible was caught. The evidence was clear, therefore is compensates for the policeman’s inability to adhere to the Fourth Amendment. Both philosophies have their reasons that are enough to justify their claims, but I believe that we should keep the Fourth Amendment as it is. It is in our law that we should respect the privacy and rights of a citizen. In the scenario above the policemen caught the perpetrator because they found evidence in his household. The search was illegal but either way, they got what they were looking for. However, what if they saw nothing, would it not be invasion of privacy on grounds as weak as instinct? Then the basic right to privacy and security of the citizen would have been violated. There is no need to change the exclusionary rule, policemen should abide by their duty and help to protect the rights of the people. We cannot compromise the basic rights of an individual for public safety. Though it is the duty of the police to go after the perpetrator and give justice to the crimes he has committed, he also has rights whether he is a citizen of the United States or not. According to the fourth amendment the exclusionary rule covers even illegal aliens. We cannot strip a person with his rights even if the need arises for the simple reason that it is adherence to our duty that defines who we are. If the exclusionary rule is to be abolished then, warrantless arrests and rampant would be more prevalent in our nation. Even now that the rule takes effect there are still violations. Rampant searches especially to our brothers with colors are evident in our nation. Wire tapping is also an issue about the security of communication lines especially for public officials. The Bush administration wanted to allow the use of evidences that were illegally seized by the police given that it was in good faith and is useful in finding the person who is responsible for the crime. Plus they want to allow federal agents to arrest persons without a warrant of arrest regardless of nationality as long as it is done with the most honest intentions. Sure this can solves some crimes such as the scenario given above, but I want to point out that this only allows further suppression of a persons liberty. When the use of illegally searched evidences is allowed in court, this would only encourage the policeman to search anyone and any house or establishment that they want to search and if they find nothing, the person concerned can’t go after the policemen and ask for damages. They will be protected by law to barge into the homes of countless citizens and invade their privacy. If we take action just because we believe that it is for the best even if it is not in our duty, we have no guarantee that that action can be fruitful. It can’t be denied that there is a need to reduce crime in our nation and solve those that are still looking for justice, but giving justice for the price of a person’s liberty is a cost that’s too high for a nation who values autonomy of its citizens. The exclusionary rule has set standards for our policemen for them to abide too such that their level of professionalism and adherence to their duty is further raised higher. They are bounded by law to protect the citizens of this nation and they should do so while safeguarding the basic rights of every individual. Thus, there is a need for the exclusionary rule to uphold the liberty of this nation. Reference

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Racial Tensions Between Colored Americans And White Americans

The 1950’s and 1960’s were plagued by racial tensions between colored Americans and white Americans. Colored Americans were denied equal access to education, jobs, and voting. After decades of oppression, the colored Americans felt worn out, and had already been through enough, and were finally ready to fight for change. Although the civil rights movement was supported mostly by the colored Americans, many white Americans were also ready for change. The interpretation of the civil rights era was modeled by the Brown vs. Board of education case, the imperative speech by John F. Kennedy, and the student non-violent coordinating committee proposal. In June 1892, the Plessy v. Ferguson case established the â€Å"separate but equal† frame for America and called it constitutional. The entire case occurred because Plessy was sitting on the â€Å"white† side of the train and despite his light complexion, was still sent to jail. However, equality came to a poorly limited extent. Some never felt equal at all. Decades later, in 1954, the Brown v. Board of education case dealt with an African American family asking for justice in regards to their daughter’s education. The Brown family, like many others, felt as though white children were seen as more deserving, and more capable, and therefore were receiving a better education than the colored children. In the â€Å"Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka† (Unger 262) case, Chief justice Warren, C.J challenged others and asked if the segregation ofShow MoreRelatedEssay On Overcoming Us History881 Words   |  4 Pagesridiculed and beat both physically and menta lly for no reason what so ever. Segregation did not allow African Americans to drink from certain fountains, eat in specific diners, and to live where they wanted. If you weren’t white and you lived in the south you lived in constant fear and had limited choices. Many weren’t able to move north because they simply couldn’t afford it. 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