Monday, September 30, 2019
After a few years of using the fiat system, the country of Monolayer decides to review Its monetary Institutions. Its economy has been quite volatile. Inflation has been high and the currency has depreciated. All this has caused foreign investment to drop dramatically. Currently, its central bankers are elected every two years. The country is considering a gold standard versus an independent central bank. What's the best way to go? Why? Answer: Monoplane's should consider Independent central bank over the gold standard.In the long run, the Independent central bank will be most suitable for a country with a volatile economy. It has certain advantages over the gold standard. Individuals have more certainty in the Central Bank; thus this serves to decrease Inflationary expectations. This makes Inflation low and steady. Another reason to keep Central banks independent from government In that governments have a tendency to settle on poor choices about fiscal strategy. Specifically when th ere is a tendency to be impacted by political contemplations.Therefore, when central bank Is independent such ulterior motives of government officials have no Impact on a country's economic state. Typically before elections, governments are enticed to cut interest rates. This expands investment development, diminishes unemployment and increments the political back of the gathering. On the other hand, this expansionary monetary policy might prompt inflation and blast and bust economic cycles. Therefore, It Is better to take financial approach out of government's hand so they are not able to play with a counters economy for their arsenal gains.Another reason to choose Independent central bank over gold standard is that gold standard limits the economic growth. Therefore, the country should continue to have fiat system with Independent central bank. Q. You're running the central bank off country called Cazenovia. The central bank that you lead is not Independent. So whenever the Prime Minister calls you to suggest that something be done, you obey. The Prime Minister calls you one day complaining that the currency is too high. Apparently, exporters are concerned thatScandinavia high currency rate is making them lose business abroad. What could you do as a central banker to get the currency to decline? Answer: As a banker, there are several possibilities to cause the currency value to depreciate and still keep the economy strong. Interest rates and currency exchange rates are correlated. To get the currency of Conclave to decline, it is required by the central bank to decrease lending rates. Another way Is to devalue the currency. By making It cheaper for the outside world to buy our goods and services at a lesser value than for the holders ofConvivial currency to purchase foreign goods and services. This will maintain the interest of foreign investors in our economy and they will pour more money into the economy. The exporters can keep make profits abroad. Further more, central banks can directly Increase the supply of money on the foreign exchange markets. It can 1 OFF This will increase the supply of Convivial money on the foreign exchange market, and decrease the supply of foreign currency, causing a depreciation in the value of the our currency.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Malls as we understand, is a form of organized retailing. They lend an ideal shopping experience with an amalgamation of product, service and entertainment, all under a common roof. Before going into the details of emergence of malls, let's see how the Indian retail sector has evolved over the years and how the concepts of malls came into being. The era of rural retail industry could be categorized into two formats:Ã weekly marketsÃ andÃ village fairs.Primarily, weekly formats catered to the daily necessities of villagers. Village fairs were larger in size with a wide variety of goods sold from food, clothing, cosmetics and small consumer durables. The traditional era saw the emergence of the neighborhood Ã¢â¬ËKirana' store to cater to the convenience of the Indian consumers. The era of government support saw indigenous franchise model of store chains run by Khadi ; Village Industries Commission. The KVIC has a countrywide chain of 7000 plus stores in India.This period also w itnessed the emergence of shopping centers with car parking facility. The modern era has a host of small and large formats with exclusive outlets showcasing a complete range of products. The department stores and shopping malls targeting to provide a complete destination experience for all segments of the society. The hyper and super markets are consistently trying to provide the customer with the 3 Vs (Value, Variety ; Volume).Over the last three years, this sector has witnessed an exorbitant growth due to the establishment of numerous international quality formats to suit the Indian purchase behavior, the improvement in retail processes, the development of retail specific properties and the emergence of both domestic and international organizations has witnessed the emergence of malls. it is not just the north of the country that is seeing a furious construction of malls. Visakhapatnam, a fast-growing city in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, is witnessing a huge demand for sh opping malls.The biggest of them, CMR Shopping Mall, occupies 60,000 square feet over five floors. The throngs of buyers who visit the mall are working class and office employees of the numerous public and private sector outfits that are based in Visakhapatnam. Similarly, Ahmedabad in western India is slowly becoming a magnet for shopping malls. More than half a dozen malls have sprung up in Ahmedabad, known as a fading city of dying textile mills until a few years back. The biggest of them, aptly called Super Mall, occupies a gargantuan 90,000 square feet and has 200 shops in its folds.But the biggest mall-construction activity in India is taking place, as expected, in Mumbai, the country's financial and business capital. In all, 25 malls are under construction, each measuring anything between 90,000 and 600,000 square feet. A hefty Rs. 4 billion (US $87 million) is being pumped into these projects by 20 investors. About a dozen malls are already up and running in the up-market sou th side of the city, as well as the downmarket distant suburbs. Making the job easier for the anchors is a gradual change in the Indian economy from a socialistic to a capitalistic one.This has led to a rise in the numbers of middle-class consumers, their wallets stuffed with more disposable income. According to one estimate, over the past three years, consumer spending has increased at a respectable rate of 12% per annum. Another reason for the ongoing boom in mall activity is the opportunity to retailers for a greater accessibility to real estate at affordable prices. Part of this is due to easier availability of bank and institutional finance. And in places such as Mumbai, the freeing up of much-needed real estate.This has happened with the many closed textile mills in the central part of the city now being allowed to exploit their real estate for other commercial purposes. Investors are attracted by the 14% returns in the malls business, compared to 11% in the office segment and 6% in the residential segment. For the young crowd, malls have become areas in which to Ã¢â¬Å"hang outÃ¢â¬ , to catch up with friends in stores like Cafe Coffee Day and Barista, each vying to be the Starbucks of India. There's also an entertainment factor, with more and more of the youngsters beginning to see shopping as an enjoyable thing to pass the time.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
During the reign of the 18th Dynasty, Akhenaton had made his kingdom very wealthy and powerful, but at the same time he also changed art in his time period which became known as the Amarna Period. Art in the Amarna period was very different from the stiff and unemotional art from the earlier Egyptian dynasties. Akhenaton was very influential on the art; it seemed that he wanted the art to convey real life taking place. Even though portrayal of Akhenaton himself seems exaggerated it seems more life-like then the earlier art, all Pharaohs seemed to look exactly the same with the same body and the same stance. Amarna art shows Akhenaton with a very elongated face, full lips, cat-like eyes and a pudgy stomach. All of the other pieces would show the pharaohs looking very strong and tough, they would never have emotion shown on their face and they were always very stiff, most of the time with their hands in their fists down by their sides. It was the first time a ruler had been rendered with such a girlish figure and not seeming all that powerful. Other pieces of art during the Amarna period such as Akhenaten, His Wife Nefertiti, and Their Children show them all engaging together. Earlier pieces of Egyptian art donÃ¢â¬â¢t convey relationships within the families, there are pieces of art with the pharaohs and their wives but most of the time they are very stiff and only standing next to each other, with no hint that they even like each other. The portrait bust, Nefertiti, is also shown very life-like; her features make her described as the most beautiful women in the world. All of the interaction and flow make this art very distinctive for all Egyptian art. The Amarna period has art that well be recognized forever for the style it uses and the emotion and interaction it conveys.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Food Process Technology - Assignment Example This report will assess the principles of these methods, their applications, the techniques through which they are applied, and their future growth and limitations. Modified Atmospheric Pressure (MAP) is a method of preserving and prolonging the shelf life of the food products. This technique was discovered in the 1930s when fruits and other products were transported to different parts of the world in ships and they tended to have increased shelf lives due to the carbon dioxide which was present in their holding rooms. Then eventually in the 1970s, the modified atmospheric packaging reached the supermarkets and stores when fish and bacon were sent to be sold in Mexico in retail packs. The technological advancement has taken place since then and thus there has been a continuous growth in the modified atmospheric packaging in regard to the increased consumer demand (Robertson, 2012). The MAP also has many theoretical explanations of why it has become popular and simply a need for the shopkeepers. Commercialization is also a major reason why the MAP is widely used to fulfill the requirements of the consumer. Shopkeepers need to maintain their profit levels and satisfy their customers. None of the customers want to buy fruits or vegetables that are not fresh. Many of the supermarkets buy goods in large stocks and preserve them. However, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t likely for every market to buy huge stocks of fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products and leave them to rot after a day. Thus, engineers from the food processing industry introduced this technique which helped the shopkeepers to maintain and retain the shelf life of their perishable products (Han, 2005). Since then, the need and use of MAP have increased with advancement that takes place frequently. These advances are in the shape of different techniques and ways of application to improve.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Plastic Surgery College - Essay Example Reconstructive surgery on the other hand can be defined as the surgery which can be pursued by so many people and this is only appropriate to those people who have irregular formations on their bodies. So, it is due to these irregular formations on ones body which has led to the reconstructive surgery by these people in order to try and make their bodies look good and also proportional. An example is the presence of a broken scar or even an earlobe which is so common to so many people. It is due to this fact you will tend to find that people will do plastic surgery on their bodies. So in real essence, plastic surgery is done on people's body in order to try and change their looks. So research was done in most of the teenagers and adults since these are the type of people who are basically doing plastic surgery so that they can be in a position to try and change their bodies' images. It was out of the research which was done on these people which gave the following advantages and disa dvantages. (Lovice, 2000). Plastic surgery can have so many advantages but only when the right procedures have been applied. A good example to explain this is the case of the cosmetic surgery which is one of the plastic surgeries used by so many people. This is because cosmetic surgery can be one of the things one would need in order to enhance ones image. Everyone would love to have a beautiful look and this is what is making so many people to dash for plastic surgery since with plastic surgery, one is in a position to improve on ones image. Plastic surgery has been a solution for so many people to try and change their images. Plastic surgery is seen to have peoples sensitivity, psychology and bodily. This is because in most cases, the representation or even the observation of ones body can be used in many cases to manage ones life obliquely. In this case, am trying to say than plastic surgery can help in improving ones facade and hence can be used as one of the achievement to ones life. You find that during the growth of a person especially those people who are brought up at the rural areas whereby they have to do most of the families activities say looking after the cattle, collecting firewood's, you will find that these people are exposed to so many body arms which will lead to so many scars in their bodies. At times, such scars are not well pleasing to look at and hence it is due to this fact you will find that so many people will do plastic surgery so that they can be in a position to improve on their appearance. So in this case, plastic surgery will have the impact of improving ones body hence leading to ones excel in life. (Lovice, 2000). Plastic surgery has also the advantage of making people to look healthier and energetic. You find that so many people can have the benefits of plastic surgery not only at their early ages but they can have these benefits even at any given age. This is because it is not sensitive to age. Even the old people can use plastic surgery so that they can be in a position to look good and healthy. So in this case, for example those adult people who do plastic surgery, they eventually prepare themselves mentally for the gorgeous and beautiful looks hence can make them look good and healthy. It is due to the development of their looks which can then be seen to make them live more energetically. Patients in this case are also seen to have an emotional powerful improvement while performing plastic surgery. An
Nursing theory - Essay Example OremÃ¢â¬â¢s nursing model recognizes universal self-care requirements namely, progressive self-care fundamentals, and health-deviation self- care basics. It evidences in importance of self-care and rehabilitation settings and encourages individual independence during treatments. Hence, self-care incorporates individuals own innovation and suitable implementation strategies for health improvement (Alligood, 2014). If a person takes full responsibility over his or her health, then self-care is achievable. OremÃ¢â¬â¢s self-care theory explains complex interplay of patientÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological and socio-economic surroundings on health. Therefore, enlightens individuals to embrace appropriate life styles to minimize lifestyle diseases. Owing to the provisions OremÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, nurse training takes into consideration the changing health care needs and teaches nurses to design issue specific nursing system for care delivery. The principal concepts of the theory identify self-care deficits and characterize individuals and nurse roles in addressing health demands. The components add to the nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ career skills to produce and efficiently manage the health scare systems. Therefore, the knowledge base enable nurses to determine extent of self-care need, assist clients to uphold a satisfactory state of self-care determine extent of nursing and utilize theories in practical cases. Since the nursing model centers on individuals capabilities, it helps nurses to conduct and empower people in order to promote healthy living. Dorothy OremÃ¢â¬â¢s self-care system is an excellent education process component that helps students to learn the main health care concepts by examining individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ role or enhancing impressions of thought and feelings (Taylor & Renpenning 2011). Largely, the theory aims to overcome humanÃ confines in the provision of nursing services and nursing education programs. The contemporary nursing
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Adolescent alcohol misuse in England and the role of media advertising - Essay Example This "Adolescent alcohol misuse in England and the role of media advertising" essay outlines the connection between portrays of the alcohol in advertisement and the level of alcohol drinking among adults and youngsters). In England, a good portion of children have experienced drinking alcohol even before they reach the age of majority (18 years) and are also likely to have been drunk once in the last 4 weeks prior to the survey (Institute of Alcohol Studies, 2013). Some have even admitted to consumption of alcohol to harmful levels by 15 years of age. Surveys also indicate that alcohol has a significant role to play in the commission of crimes among young people aged 18 years or below (Institute of Alcohol Studies, 2013). Media advertising plays a huge role in alcohol misuse among adolescents. The International Centre for Alcohol Policy (ICAP) indicated with the World Health Organization that there is strong evidence linking advertising and drinking patterns among adolescents. The ICAP mentions that Ã¢â¬Å"young people are inevitably exposed to beverage alcohol advertising as they are to advertising for any consumer productÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Thomsen and Rekve (2006) discuss how the increased awareness of alcohol messages for young adults and adolescents can sometimes cause earlier age to start drinking, higher levels of consumption, and increase risks or recklessness. . The study further indicated that without alcohol advertising, monthly levels of youth alcohol use would be reduced by as much as 24%.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Employment-At-Will Doctrine - Essay Example Similarly, the Employment-At-Will Doctrine provides that an employee can leave his/her job without any reason, cause or warning (Stone, 2007). Thus, when employees feel that they do not wish to continue working for the current employer, they can just leave their work station without any explanation whatsoever. This doctrine has emerged as controversial, considering that the proponents of the doctrine observes that it is a balanced contractual policy, where both the employer and the employee are given absolute freedom to determine whether they should continue with an employment contract or not. However, those opposing this doctrine observe that it serves to create more injustice, considering that the bargaining powers between the employer and the employee are not equal (Stone, 2007). The employer always have an upper hand, and thus those opposed to the doctrine finds it inappropriate, since it allows the employer to dismiss employees anyhow, while the employees are left without any re medy or cause of action, when such an action is taken. Therefore, the bottom-line of the Employment-At-Will Doctrine is that there exists no law that protects the employee or the employer against any action that any of the party to the employment contract may take, whether on the basis of good reason, bad one or no reasons at all (Stone, 2007). Evaluating each of the eight (8) scenarios and assessing whether one can legally fire the employee The action taken by John is not within his rights under the employment-at-will doctrine, which grants an employee the right to strike, quit freely or cease to work (Stone, 2007). The doctrine does not provide the freedom for an employee to take any action that can harm the employer, other than quitting at will or striking for any reason. Therefore, the action taken by John warrants his sacking, since he is destroying the relationship between the employer and its clientele. The action taken by Jim to send an email to the rest of the employees, pr otesting a change in commission schedules and bonuses is within his rights under the employment-at-will doctrine, since it entails protesting against wrongful discrimination, which is an exception under employment-at-will doctrine, within the protected actions (Stone, 2007). Therefore, it will not be right to fire him, since he is protesting against discriminatory change in commission schedules and bonuses. Similarly, Ellen has taken an action that is within her rights under the employment-at-will doctrine, through criticizing the employer on the blog, on the basis of what she believes to be wrongful discrimination in CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s bonus, which only favors director, leaving out the rest of the employees. This action is provided for under the exceptions to employment-at-will doctrine, where the employee should not be fired for protesting against protected actions, such as wrongful discrimination (Stone, 2007). Bill, on the other hand has taken an action that is against his rights, thr ough using the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets to run his side venture. This is not a right guaranteed to him by the employment-at-will doctrine, and thus warrants the employer to fire him. Joe is another employee that lacks any legal basis for suing the employer under the employment-at-will doctrine. Joe threatens to sue the company for invasion of privacy after being disciplined for
Monday, September 23, 2019
Assignment5 economics - Essay Example The third step is to cut back the business hours. The business ethics component of this move is that if one is in the business of pharmaceuticals and health care, one risks the chance of causing damage to patients who will need your services by cutting back on the business hours. The fourth step is to close one's business for a week or two to actually take a vacation. The business ethics aspect of this decision is that if one has a pharmaceutical or health care business, one risks the possibility of causing inconvenience to one's clients. The fifth step is to bring in a family member to split the current "job load. The ethical consideration of this move is that one has to ensure that his/her relatives or siblings must do business observing fairness, honesty, transparency and accountability to government laws. Zambia is landlocked and has a low population composed of 70 ethnic groups, many of them Bantu-speaking. The country boasts of spectacular scenery spanning the Victoria Falls along the Zambezi river, the Bangweulu Swamps and the Luangwa river valley. Millions of Zambians live below the World Bank poverty threshold of $1 a day. Zambia currently receives and provides shelter for tens of thousands of refugees who have fled fighting in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (World Factbook 2008). The World Bank Poverty Assessment Report (2007) has identified these areas of economic concern afflicting Zambia consisting of the high level of international debt, deterioration in the international price of copper, macro instability, the collapse of major manufacturing industries, the scourge of HIVIAIDS, and acute governance and policy failures.Zambia has been one of most heavily indebted developing countries. However, the government has done serious efforts to pare down its international debt st ock. Zambia obtained a total of 6.6 billion dollars of debt relief in 2005. (Scotland Aid Agency, 2008). If the Debt to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ratio is 133%, this means that Zambia is paying millions on debt interest only. This is money that could be used to fund social programs or provide employment programs. Therefore, the unemployment rate is also adversely affected because the government doesn't have sufficient funds to begin or maintain such social programs. The unemployment and underemployment levels are very high. This means that many head of the families are out of work. Many families are hungry and in deep need of aid in social services such as health and education.The country has to contend with an expensive disease which has no long term cure. The high rate of HIV/AIDs incidence also means that the country will need international assistance from the World Health Organization to combat this scourge. In 20013, HIVIAIDS prevalence was estimated at 18 percent for women and 13 percent for men, and Zambia was entering its third decade of double-digit HIVIAIDS prevalence. The country does not have the financial resources to finance health services and medicines to combat HIV/AIDS. The low growth of the GDP is the result of weak government policies, poor business environment, lower foreign and local investments resulting in fewer businesses and fewer jobs available in the market. The literacy rate of Zambia is relatively low (65%)
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Introductory Speech Essay Introduction: Someone once said; a picture paints a thousand words. To me thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a hundred percent true. I started photography when I was at a young age, around twelve. I carried my camera everywhere I went to capture every memory, every scenery that was around me in one simple photo. I love the fact that with film, youÃ¢â¬â¢re stuck with the photo on paper, whereas with digital you can delete it and lose it forever. Here are some reasons why I brought in my film camera, not only does it describe my passion for photography, but the lenses I look through can capture my life in a click. Thesis: I think my film camera reveal a lot about me Ã¢â¬â not only my everyday activities and hobbies, but the events that happen through my life. Body: Preview: If you look closely at the camera, you can tell how old it is and how much it has been used. 1. I am a creative person a. I take pictures of anything, from landscapes, to random objects lying around on the ground Ã¢â¬â in which I create something out of it. b. IÃ¢â¬â¢m into art, not only do I take photographs, but when I do I tend to paint them to enlarge them. Transition: The interior of my camera can tell you a lot about what I do with the roll of film, but when developed, they also can provide clues to who I am and where I have been. 1. I love to be outdoors, and with family a. As for taking pictures of friends and families, people pass away, they change, and when Im in school I know Ill probably never see them again so I like to have the memories. i. I only get to see family once a year, and capturing the rare moments we have together is what makes the moments seem to last forever. b. The film inside (when present and developed) also provides a lot of photos that capture my life outside. i. I enjoy going camping, I spend my majority of the time out walking and enjoying the colors and surroundings of the outdoors. ii. I personally enjoy taking pictures of scenery because I like to capture nature before its destroyed but also because its always changing. Conclusion: So you can see my camera captures the creative side of me. It has been a witness to my everyday adventures and the many journeys. You could learn a lot about me by looking at the photographs I have taken. When Im behind my camera, I sometimes feel like Im looking at the world through someone elses eyes.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Tropical Death and Mid-Term Break | Analysis Compare and contrast the presentation of death and grief in both poems In this essay I will be comparing and contrasting the presentation of death and grief in the two poems, Ã¢â¬ËTropical Death and Ã¢â¬ËMid-Term Break. Grace Nichols, the poet of Ã¢â¬ËTropical Death, was born in Guyana, 1950, and then migrated to England at the age of 27. In all of her writing, her own history and that of her country have clearly had a profound impact as she says, Ã¢â¬Å"I am a writer across two worlds; I just cant forget my Caribbean culture and past, so theres this contrast interaction between the two worlds: Britain and the Caribbean.Ã¢â¬ Seamus Heaney, the poet of Ã¢â¬ËMid Term Break, was born in Ireland in 1939 as the eldest of nine children. Many of his works concern his own family history as well and also seems to focus on characters in his own family: they can be read as elegies for those family members. The content of both the poems presents the themes of death and grief. Both poems deal with two poetic voices discussing and dealing with death. In Ã¢â¬Å"Tropical DeathÃ¢â¬ she is planning the end of her life whereas in Ã¢â¬Å"Mid Term BreakÃ¢â¬ he is dealing with the loss of his brother. In Ã¢â¬ËTropical Death, the content consists of a Caribbean Ã¢â¬Å"black womanÃ¢â¬ wanting Ã¢â¬Å"a brilliant tropical deathÃ¢â¬ . Grace Nichols discusses going back to her home country because she is planning the end of her life and would like a dramatic, traditional death. I think this as she suggests so much of her own death that the reader presumes she has come to the end of her life. I, as a reader, find the poetic voice in the category of integrity. This is because she is feeling ready for her own death and is hence planning for it. We also know she wants a dramatic death because it says, Ã¢â¬Å"no quiet jerk tear wiping, a polite hearse withdrawalÃ¢â¬ , proving the woman wants an Ã¢â¬Ëover the top end to her life. The poetic voice wants a tragic death, as it also states Ã¢â¬Å"all the sleepless droning/ red-eyed wake nightsÃ¢â¬ . This suggests vigil. In Ã¢â¬Å"Mid Term BreakÃ¢â¬ the content consists of an account of a family tragedy. In the poem the poetic voice attends the funeral of his younger brother who, at the age of four, was run over. We know this because it says Ã¢â¬Å"my mother held my handÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"met my father cryingÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"they were Ã¢â¬Ësorry for my troubleÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"I was the eldestÃ¢â¬ . All these quotes tell us, as the reader, what the family is going through. This makes us feel pathos for the poetic voice. The poetic voice is actually Heaneys own as this really did happen in his life. This make the peace feel more heart-felt and emotional because all these things Heaney talks about were real. The ideas the poets may have wanted us to think about presents the themes of death and grief. In Ã¢â¬ËTropical Death, an idea Nichols wanted us to think about was how she knows and has identified the way in which she would like to die. Ã¢â¬Å"Woman wantÃ¢â¬ , she is portrayed as always wanting which shows pride, determination, self-radiance, independence and strength. She had thought so much about her death that she knows every detail, down to what dress she would like to wear, Ã¢â¬Å"blue sea dress/ to wrap her neatÃ¢â¬ . When I first read this I thought the poetic voice meant she wanted to drown, Ã¢â¬Å"dressÃ¢â¬ being the waves and Ã¢â¬Å"neatÃ¢â¬ meaning to take her life quickly and painlessly. Yet having re-read it, I realised the woman was actually just referring to her plans for her traditional Caribbean outfit in which she wanted to be buried in. In Ã¢â¬Å"Mid Term BreakÃ¢â¬ , an idea Heaney wanted us to think about was the imagery used to express ideas of death . Heaney uses a metaphor to describe the only mark on the boys body, Ã¢â¬Å"poppy bruiseÃ¢â¬ . This is also the only colour talked about in the piece which makes this one mark more intense. It says he had Ã¢â¬Å"no gaudy scarsÃ¢â¬ because Ã¢â¬Å"the bumper knocked him clearÃ¢â¬ and having this one little bruise, although it was probably quite small, seems extremely vivid and sickening. The colour also contrasts with the boys skin, which is described by the poetic voice as Ã¢â¬Å"paler nowÃ¢â¬ . This also emphasises the Ã¢â¬Å"poppy bruiseÃ¢â¬ for us, as the reader, to imagine the mark to stand out quite spectacularly. Another image Heaney wants use to imagine is the four foot box, which is alliteration. This device emphasises the negative tone and harsh nature, making the thought of this coffin more believable and realistic. My favorite device Heaney uses is onomatopoeia; Ã¢â¬Å"whispersÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"coughedÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"sighsÃ¢â¬ . This helps create the effect th at we are actually there, hearing what the poetic voice is hearing. It makes the scene so much more real, again, like we are actually there- this emphasises the quite sadness. The mood and atmosphere of both poems present the themes of death and grief. In Ã¢â¬Å"Tropical DeathÃ¢â¬ the mood is quite exotic and I, as a reader, could almost imagine a Caribbean woman saying these things. This was because it was written in a language that captures the Caribbean dialect, but I will go on to write more about this later on. Grace writes, Ã¢â¬Å"No quiet jerk tear wipingÃ¢â¬ . This is not Ã¢â¬ËStandard English, emphasizing the Caribbean influence, and there is no punctuation throughout the piece. The mood is tropical, the writer talks about Ã¢â¬Å"heatÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"shadeÃ¢â¬ which suggests the temperature, making the reader feel as if we are there, in the Caribbean. The mood is also quite upbeat, with colourful words such as; Ã¢â¬Å"brilliantÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"blue sea dressÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"red eyedÃ¢â¬ . This vibrant text makes us think of the bright colours on the island. After Ã¢â¬Å"all the sleepless droningÃ¢â¬ the moo d softens, Ã¢â¬Å"her mothers sweet breastÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"cool blessÃ¢â¬ . These peaceful descriptions lower the tension levels to make the last couplet seem stronger. In Ã¢â¬Å"Mid Term BreakÃ¢â¬ there is a noticeable change in atmosphere between stanza five and stanza six. In the first five stanzas the atmosphere is tense and cold as the Ã¢â¬Å"ambulance arrivedÃ¢â¬ and the arrival of the corpse Ã¢â¬Å"stanched and bandagedÃ¢â¬ . The energy level of the poetic voice is low throughout these first five stanzas, like the poetic voice is tired and drowned from all that is going on. However, in the final few stanzas the atmosphere changes peaceful, Ã¢â¬Å"snowdropsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"candles soothedÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"he layÃ¢â¬ . These bring down the tension levels as we picture the calm, relaxed mood around the cot. Heaney uses pathos, Ã¢â¬Å"I met my father cryingÃ¢â¬ . This emphasises the bleak tone of the poem, playing on the readers feelings. How the poems are written present the themes of death and grief. The poem Ã¢â¬Å"Tropical DeathÃ¢â¬ has a refrain which is repeated at the start of every stanza (except for the fifth one). Having the same line every time we start a new paragraph of the poem helps us, as a reader, to be brought back to what the whole poem is about, as a constant reminder. This repetition is an eternal rhyme and its a connotation of death. It is also alliteration, a device Nichols uses throughout her poem. The refrain also stands out due to its stressed syllables, which are short and staccato vowel sounds. The Ã¢â¬Ët and the Ã¢â¬Ëk letters make the beat hard and unappealing. Repetition is thought to originate from the call and response tradition of Africa; it could be a big part in her writing due to Grace Nichols background. The poem also hints at several lovely parts of death; Ã¢â¬Å"blue sea dress/ to wrap her neatÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"polite hearseÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"in the heart/ of her mothers sweet breastÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"in the shade/ of the sun leafs cool blessÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"in the bloom/ of her peoples bloodrestÃ¢â¬ . This tells me, as a reader, that Ã¢â¬Å"the fat black womanÃ¢â¬ awaits the end of her life with dignity, her head held high having fulfilled her planned life and is subsequently planning her own death for when it may arrive. The structure of Ã¢â¬Å"Tropical DeathÃ¢â¬ is divided into five stanzas and one ending couplet. Stanza one, two, three and four all start with the line Ã¢â¬Å"the fat black woman wantÃ¢â¬ . The fifth stanza doesnt start with this but then the couplet does, also the fourth and fifth stanzas are longer than the first, second and third. This could be to emphasise the final image more, by giving the reader a break from the refrain and also the length of the two stanzas before outline the short and snappiness of the ending couplet. This break is to not detract from the message and there is also no punctuation in the couplet, this is so the reader is left with a strong image. This image has been building up throughout the piece, Ã¢â¬Å"the fat black woman want/ a brilliant tropical death yesÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Tropical DeathÃ¢â¬ is written in a language that captures the Caribbean dialect. It uses some unfamiliar vocabulary, e.g. Ã¢â¬Ëhibiscus is a plant native to warm tropical regions; Ã¢â¬Ëblue sea dress is a traditional African dress. It creates as strong sense of the voice of the speaker. It clearly sets the poem in a culture other than that represented by Ã¢â¬ËStandard English. By using a mixture of Standard English and a dialect form it emphasises a particular idea, in this poem the idea is of wanting to go back to her home country. This technique gives a sense of the dual Ã¢â¬Ëvoice that the poet possesses. Nichols enjoys exploring these cultural differences: Ã¢â¬ËI like working in both Standard English and Creole. I tend to want to fuse the two tongues because I come from a background where the tw o worlds were constantly interacting, though Creole was regarded, obviously, as the inferior of the colonial powers when I was growing up. In Ã¢â¬Å"Mid Term BreakÃ¢â¬ the rhyme scheme is non-existent. I believe this is to make the tone of the piece more serious and grown up. It is written like an episode rather than a poem. This highlights the realist mood and atmosphere. The finishing couplet is more memorable as the middle is slower and bland. The rhyming couplet seems to sooth. Heaney writes, Ã¢â¬Å"No gaudy scars, the bumper knocked him clear/ A four foot box, a foot for every yearÃ¢â¬ . This decreases the tension and affirms the ending of the peace. The dialect is Standard English, with punctuation. This helps us to imagine the poetic voice to live somewhere cold and unappealing because the language used is harsh and unwelcoming. How the poems are similar presents the themes of death and grief. Both poems finish with a punchy line, to leave the reader with an image to take with them. In Ã¢â¬Å"Tropical DeathÃ¢â¬ this is the fact that the poetic voice wants to go back to her home country to die in a traditional way yet in Ã¢â¬Å"Mid Term BreakÃ¢â¬ this is the fact that a boy has died young from a tragic accident. These final images conclude both poems strongly. Both poems have a similar layout, with regular stanzas and a final shorter stanza. Both poems overall talk about the same things, but Ã¢â¬Å"Tropical DeathÃ¢â¬ discusses in a more up-beat, lively and natural sort of way- it is the natural order of life. Whereas, in Heaneys poem, it is written in a more dejected and sad kind of way. How the poems are different present the themes of death and grief. In Nichols poem she talks about the planning of her death whereas in Heaneys poem he talks about a boy who has died young- his life was cut tragically short, without any notice. Nichols is basically saying all that the boy in Heaneys poem had, she doesnt want. She says Ã¢â¬Å"not a cold sojourn/ in some North Europe far/forlornÃ¢â¬ . That is exactly what the little boy in Heaneys poem got. Nichols says she doesnt want Ã¢â¬Å"a polite hearseÃ¢â¬ and yet thats what Heaneys poem has, Ã¢â¬Å"sorry for my troubleÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"whispersÃ¢â¬ . The Ã¢â¬Å"fat black womanÃ¢â¬ wants Ã¢â¬Å"some bawlÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Sleepless droningÃ¢â¬ unlike the boy had in Heaneys poem, Ã¢â¬Å"coughed out tearless sighsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"I was embarrassedÃ¢â¬ . All these things prove that everything Heaney describes in his poem is everything Nichols is saying she doesnt want; both poems sum up the cultural norms. Our culture is pr esented in Heaneys poem as cold, Ã¢â¬Å"snowdropsÃ¢â¬ with lots of secrecy, Ã¢â¬Å"whispersÃ¢â¬ , and this contrast greatly with Nichols culture which is described as lively and welcoming. The coldness and grayness hit us in Heaneys poem, Ã¢â¬Å"no gaudy scarsÃ¢â¬ and white Ã¢â¬Å"snowdropsÃ¢â¬ . This is such a contrast from Nichols vivid and warm piece, Ã¢â¬Å"heatÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"tropicalÃ¢â¬ . In Ã¢â¬Å"Mid Term BreakÃ¢â¬ there is tension, Ã¢â¬Å"embarrassedÃ¢â¬ , there is forced politeness and secrecy. It is a hint that we dont have a welcoming culture, unlike Nichols culture, ours seems cold and behind doors, Ã¢â¬Å"a cold sojournÃ¢â¬ as described in Ã¢â¬Å"Tropical DeathÃ¢â¬ . In conclusion, these two poems present death and grief in two different ways- we hear the negativity of Heaneys traumatic experience, which completely contrasts with Nichols positive request to return to her homeland for her death.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Reflection coaching Reflection is defined by Stenhouse 1975 p144 as Ã¢â¬Ëa capacity for autonomous professional self-development through systematic self-study. Discuss how a coach utilises reflective practise to enhance their coaching performance Reflection is used to improve coaching performance through a variety of ways. Kidman (2001: 50) describes reflection as Ã¢â¬Å"a particularly significant part of empowerment whereby coaches themselves take ownership of their learning and decision makingÃ¢â¬ . The coach is therefore very active in gaining information which could be beneficial to them. Dewey (1919: 3) describes reflection as Ã¢â¬Å"turning a subject over in the mind and giving it a serious and consecutive considerationÃ¢â¬ . By analysing information repeatedly and seriously, in depth knowledge is gained from it. *(DANS)*Pollard (2002) believes that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËReflective teaching is applied in cyclical or spiralling process, in which teachers monitor, evaluate and revise their own practice continually.Ã¢â¬ By being dedicated in analysing oneself, analysing others is possible. A slightly different concept of reflection is introduced by Schon. The notion of, Ã¢â¬Ëreflection in action. Schon (1983; 50) Ã¢â¬Å"Athletes think about what they are doing, sometimes even while doing itÃ¢â¬ . Expanding on this Schon highlights phrases like, Ã¢â¬ËKeep your wits about you and Ã¢â¬Ëthinking on your feet. Schons belief here is in game reflection is natural and beneficial. Gilbert and Trudel (2001) believe Schons idea as a Ã¢â¬Å"separate type of reflectionÃ¢â¬ . They also offer a different type of reflection which they call Ã¢â¬Å"retrospective reflection-on-actionÃ¢â¬ which is further described as Ã¢â¬Å"that which occurs outside the action-presentÃ¢â¬ . Their belief is that coaches reflect on concerns in between practise sessions and that reflection Ã¢â¬Å"still occurs within the action-present, but not in the midst of activityÃ¢â¬ . So they firmly believe that reflection-on-action is totally different to reflection-in-action. Gilbert and Trudel (2001) consider reflection to utilise Ã¢â¬Å"a conceptual framework to understand how coaches draw on experience when learning to coachÃ¢â¬ Ghaye and Lillyman (2000) bring forward the idea that the core of reflection is carried out in a series of Ã¢â¬Ëframes. Role framing was the coaches role executed correct? Value framing examining if there was value-positions present? Temporal framing was the order of actions correct? Parallel process framing could the end result varied? Problem framing were problems noticed effectively? These frames provide a practical way of analysing sport practises. Reflective practise can provide an efficient apparatus for monitoring and assessment of athletes. Dewey (1916) who is considered heavily to be the Ã¢â¬Ëfounder of reflection, gives three attributes which are needed in order to participate in reflective practise. Open-mindedness, described as Ã¢â¬Å"an active desire to listen to more sides than one, to give heed to facts from whatever source they come and to give full attention to alternative possibilitiesÃ¢â¬ . Whole-heartedness, which is being Ã¢â¬Å"absorbed in an interestÃ¢â¬ . Responsibility is also needed as consequences are accepted therefore Ã¢â¬Å"securing integrity in ones beliefsÃ¢â¬ . Deweys beliefs have stood strong for eighty years and still provide modern coaches with a basic outlook on what is needed to be an effective reflective coach. Methods of using reflective practise There are a few ways in which reflective practise is put into action. By using a variety of methods coaches can expand from the basics and look more in detail depending on the type of information that is required. Video analysis is one method used in order to aid reflective practise. A coach can record a session and therefore have exact details of what actions are taken. This allows for precise analysis in which athletes can also see themselves and what they could improve on. McKernan was a firm believer in video recording to aid coaching: Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦might use a video recorder to trap teaching performance as evidence or Ã¢â¬Ëdata to be analysed. More importantly, such a film becomes a critical documentary for reflecting on practiceÃ¢â¬ ¦research can be undertaken by reactive methods such as observers, questionnaires, interviews, dialogue journals or through such non-reactive techniques as case studies, field notes, logs, diaries anecdotal records, document analysis, shadow studies. McKernan (1996)(DANS) Using other coaches is one way reflective practise can be more reliable and efficient. Analysis speed is increased as more coaches can observe and acknowledge similar issues that arise and whilst opinions may be divided, an overview of general problems can be addressed more easily. This view is backed up by Gould, Giannani, Krane, Hodge (1990) Ã¢â¬Å"development of craft knowledge which can be fostered through the realms of practical experience and interaction with other coaches.Ã¢â¬ Using a cognitive based style, reflection can take place through demonstration. Coaches need to reflect on how demonstrations of skills are executed and the coach must ensure that when a learner is receiving a demonstration that it is of adequate quality for the athlete to learn and progress using reflection. Demonstrations Coaching points and Ã¢â¬Ëlogs are a very basic and fundamental way of reflecting on a performer. By making key observations during a practise and after, a coach can identify the problem areas. The more experienced the coach the more this basic method is effective and less need for the more advanced methods. This kind of feedback is usually Benefits to using reflective practise Ã¢â¬Å"by reflecting on practise a coach may expose his or her perceptions and beliefs to evaluation, creating a heightened sense of self awareness, which in turn my lead to a certain openness to new ideasÃ¢â¬ (Hellison and Templin 1991: 9) Reflective practise can increase ability in perception and creativity. This is due to the self improvement the coach must make themselves but are rewarded through these attributes. These attributes could then be passed onto the learner and thus bridging a gap between coach and learner.(BOOK) (PDF)Anderson, Knowles and Gilbourne (2004) state that Ã¢â¬Å"reflective practice is the latest topical strategic method that could help sports coaches explore their decisions and experiences, aiding them to make sense of the situation and directly influence the learning process.Ã¢â¬ This is clear that reflective practise can be used in order to help sports coaches. It is also considered one of the more modern uses of coaching in order to achieve higher ability in a more demanding results driven environment. Ã¢â¬Å"Indeed, to maximise learning, critical reflection is the core difference between whether an individual repeats the same experience time and time again or learns from the experience in such a way that the individual is cognitively or affectively changedÃ¢â¬ (Boyde and Fales, 1983).(PDF) By using reflective practise Boyde and Fales suggest that there is a high chance of learning and developing skills rather than just repeating an experience with no eventual gain. They believe reflection is essential to this as without it there would be no way an individual would know if improvement took place or not. Ã¢â¬Å"if a coach takes the opportunity to understand the consequences, both positive and negative, of the decisions made during a training session, they are better able to rationalise their decisions when under pressureÃ¢â¬ (Kidman, 2001).(PDF) Kidman here links this in with Schons Ã¢â¬Ërefelction in action. This is necessary in high tempo environments and is vital in gaining a better decision making process. Whilst reflection is important before and during training or match environments, only Ã¢â¬Ëreflection in action can gain quick and often needed information to make decisions. Ã¢â¬Å"reflection is thought to have a potent role in helping to bridge the gap between education and knowledge that is generated through practiceÃ¢â¬ (Ghaye Ghaye, 1998).(PDF) Making coaches acknowledge their achievements is possible via reflection as it is a conscious and active way of fortifying the positives and negatives of individual and group practise. Difficulties in using reflective practise Whilst there is lots of evidence to strengthen the idea that reflective coaching is a useful practise, there are certainly problems that need addressing and limitations which clearly show it is not a full proof method even when applied properly. Crum (1995) Ã¢â¬Å"If a practitioner holds a Ã¢â¬Ëtraining-of-the-physical view of coaching and believes his or her role is only to improve fitness and adopt a technical/utilitarian approach, then becoming a coach who reflects in depth is not going to be paramountÃ¢â¬ . Whilst reflective practise does have its place, it would seem that it is limited. Some areas such as social negotiation and mentality may be difficult to improve through reflection practise but in many environments that reflective practise is used these are vital skills. Playing in high tempo and contact sports require both of these skills in abundance and gaining it through the individual is the most logical approach but if reflective practise is used then the coach is providing the information and techniques which arent transferable to individuals in these areas. Ã¢â¬Å"As many coaches will testify, written reflection, usually in the form of Ã¢â¬Ëlogs, are frequently sanitised to deliver what is deemed as being necessary knowledge, thus being corralled into conformity (Chesterfield, Jones, Mitchell, 2007), possibly stifling coach creativity.Ã¢â¬ (PDF) Whilst Hellison and Templin believe in reflection in opening creativity, the basic form of a Ã¢â¬Ëlog could be evidence that reflection does hinder creativity. Conformity is compliance with what already exists, if coaches comply to current practises such as Ã¢â¬Ëlogs then there is no space for new practises to be introduced and composed. (PDF)Johns (1995) argued that Ã¢â¬Å"reflective practice is profoundly difficult, and it is therefore necessary to have a detailed model that guides and supports coaches.Ã¢â¬ Reflection does require many skills and outside opinions to be useful. There is a certain amount of complexity that comes with reflecting before, during and after sessions. Gibbs six-staged cyclical model for example is a complex calculated formula designed to give detailed analysis and evaluation. Whilst this could be beneficial it is only useful to coaches with prior experience or high ability levels. So as a general overall practise reflection can be difficult. Ã¢â¬Å"Trust is a vital part of a reflective conversation and, according to Maister, Green, Galford (2002), trust is a two-way relationship where people can be honest and respect each others openness. Without a real trusting relationship with significant others (e.g. a tutor, mentor, supervisor, coach) personal reflections may stay Ã¢â¬Ësafe and predictable and the real issues may go unresolved.Ã¢â¬ (PDF) Social dynamic in any relationship is extremely important. The relationship between coach and athlete is as open to flux as every other relationship. Trust is vitally important and is open to change to high and low levels. If trust is broken then coach performance or athlete obedience could drop. Reflection here is then a problem if not enough trust is spread and responsibility fall onto other people to provide strength in connecting and creativity in avoiding playing the Ã¢â¬Ësafe option which could potentially break trust. Conclusion To conclude, I believe that reflection is a very useful practise for coaches to undertake in developing athletes. Reflection can take place before, during and after which makes it very flexible and adaptable to a variety of environments. The coach does however need a certain level of ability in order to reflect appropriately and constructively. Detail is paramount and a coach analysing a level too high above them will struggle using reflection. I personally believe that the best method of reflection is video analysis. I think this because it gives an exact recollection of technical display and thanks to modern technology is available at a wide range of levels. It is, however, important that a coach doesnt rely on one method such as video analysis. During a competition or quick based environment it may not be possible to use this method and therefore a variety of reflective methods should be learnt and applied by coaches. This will make them more rounded and adaptable to their environment. One thing that I found intriguing was the amount of reflection that the coach must put on themselves. This Ã¢â¬Ëself reflection is vital as if this isnt carried out coaches methods may stagnate or accurate analysis and therefore feedback for the athlete cannot be attained thus making the practise useless. coach needs adaptable refelective ability, depending on the athletes, age, gender, ability etcÃ¢â¬ ¦.. To sum up Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.states and defines refelction very clearly Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬
Thursday, September 19, 2019
A Woman Mourned By Daughters: An Analysis Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ , by Adrienne Rich, is a very descriptive poem in which two women are speaking to their dead mother. There are several parts to this poem starting from the when the mother dies, and moving gradually backward to when the daughters were young girls. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It begins with the daughters sitting in their mothers kitchen, Ã¢â¬Å"mourningÃ¢â¬ over their mothers death, only they aren't upset or crying (Lines 1-3). They are Ã¢â¬Å"spentÃ¢â¬ (drained and tired) from all the pressure their mother put on them, before and after she died. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The next section (Lines 4-10) is a description of their dead mother as a persistent presence in their lives. They are so burdened by the power she still carries over them, even though she is no longer living. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã They proceed in speaking about her as an elderly woman, weak and frail, Ã¢â¬Å" a straw blown on the bedÃ¢â¬ (Lines 11-14). The describe her on her death bed. Ã¢â¬Å" Like a corpse pulled from the seaÃ¢â¬ . Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the fourth section (Lines 15-20) they discuss that what upsets them now that she is gone, isn't the fact that she died, it is all the things that she used to do to them. A knot forms in their throats (Ã¢â¬Å"what rises in our throats like the food you prodded inÃ¢â¬ ) as they think about how they used to be treated. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After the mother dies, the daughters are left with several responsibilities which are discussed in the next section (Lines 22-28). These responsibilities are not ones which the daughters would be happy to take care of. They are so hateful toward their mother and the problems she left are only a burden to them. They feel that they are still being pushed around even after she is dead. Even the thought of taking care of their sick and dying father is thought of as a chore instead of a blessing. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The final section of this poem (Lines 29-33) basically states that if they do something, and it isn't exactly the way their mother would have wished it done, they will be punished. They will feel the guilt from their mother, from beyond the grave, if they do not do things the way she did them, or would
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
History of R. Buckminister Fuller Fuller was most famous for his geodesic domes, which can be seen as part of military radar stations, civic buildings, and exhibition attractions. Their construction is based on extending some basic principles to build simple tensegrity structures (tetrahedron, octahedron, and the closest packing of spheres). Built in this way they are extremely lightweight and stable. The patent for geodesic domes was awarded in 1954, part of Fuller's decades-long efforts to explore nature's constructing principles to find design solutions. Previously, Fuller had designed and built prototypes of what he hoped would be a safer, aerodynamic Dymaxion Car ("Dymaxion" is contracted from DYnamic MAXimum tensION). To this end he experimented with a radical new approach. He worked with professional colleagues over a period of three years, beginning in 1932. Based on a design idea Fuller had derived from that of aircraft, the three prototype cars were all quite different from anything on the market. For one thing, each of these vehicles had three, not four, wheels - with two (the drive wheels) in front, and the third, rear wheel being the one that was steered. The engine was located in the rear. Both the chassis and the body were original designs. The aerodynamic, somewhat tear-shaped body (which in one of the prototypes was about 18 feet long), was large enough to seat 11 people. It somehow resembled a melding of a light aircraft (albeit without wings) and a Volkswagen van of 1950s vintage. The car was essentially a mini-bus in each of its three trial incarnations, and its concept long predated the Volkswagen Transporter mini-bus that was conceived by Ben Pon in 1947 and first built in 1950. Despite its length, and due to its three-wheel design, the Dymaxion Car turned on a small radius and parked in a tight space quite easily. The prototypes were efficient in fuel consumption for their day. Fuller poured a great deal of his own money (inherited from his mother) into the project, in addition to the funds put in by one of his professional collaborators. An industrial investor was also keenly interested in the unprecedented concept. Fuller anticipated the car could travel on an open highway safely at up to about 100 miles per hour (160 km/h); however, due to some concept oversights, the prototypes proved to be unruly over the speed of 50 mph... ...s friends with Boston artist Pietro Pezzati. He experimented with polyphasic sleep. A new allotrope of carbon (fullerene) and a particular molecule of that allotrope (buckminsterfullerene or buckyballs) have been named after him. On July 12, 2004 the United States Post Office released a new commemorative stamp honoring Buckminster Fuller on the 50th anniversary of his patent for the geodesic dome and on the occasion of his 109th birthday.  Neologisms World-around is a term coined by Fuller to replace worldwide. The general belief in a flat Earth died out in the Middle Ages, so using wide is an anachronism when referring to the surface of the Earth Ã¢â¬â a spheroidal surface has area and encloses a volume, but has no width. Fuller held that unthinking use of obsolete scientific ideas detracts from and misleads intuition. The terms sunsight and sunclipse are other neologisms, according to Allegra Fuller Snyder collectively coined by the Fuller family, replacing sunrise and sunset in order to overturn the geocentric bias of most pre-Copernican celestial mechanics. Fuller also coined the phrase Spaceship Earth, and coined the term (but did not invent) tensegrity. History of R. Buckminister Fuller Essay -- Geodesic Domes R. Buckminis History of R. Buckminister Fuller Fuller was most famous for his geodesic domes, which can be seen as part of military radar stations, civic buildings, and exhibition attractions. Their construction is based on extending some basic principles to build simple tensegrity structures (tetrahedron, octahedron, and the closest packing of spheres). Built in this way they are extremely lightweight and stable. The patent for geodesic domes was awarded in 1954, part of Fuller's decades-long efforts to explore nature's constructing principles to find design solutions. Previously, Fuller had designed and built prototypes of what he hoped would be a safer, aerodynamic Dymaxion Car ("Dymaxion" is contracted from DYnamic MAXimum tensION). To this end he experimented with a radical new approach. He worked with professional colleagues over a period of three years, beginning in 1932. Based on a design idea Fuller had derived from that of aircraft, the three prototype cars were all quite different from anything on the market. For one thing, each of these vehicles had three, not four, wheels - with two (the drive wheels) in front, and the third, rear wheel being the one that was steered. The engine was located in the rear. Both the chassis and the body were original designs. The aerodynamic, somewhat tear-shaped body (which in one of the prototypes was about 18 feet long), was large enough to seat 11 people. It somehow resembled a melding of a light aircraft (albeit without wings) and a Volkswagen van of 1950s vintage. The car was essentially a mini-bus in each of its three trial incarnations, and its concept long predated the Volkswagen Transporter mini-bus that was conceived by Ben Pon in 1947 and first built in 1950. Despite its length, and due to its three-wheel design, the Dymaxion Car turned on a small radius and parked in a tight space quite easily. The prototypes were efficient in fuel consumption for their day. Fuller poured a great deal of his own money (inherited from his mother) into the project, in addition to the funds put in by one of his professional collaborators. An industrial investor was also keenly interested in the unprecedented concept. Fuller anticipated the car could travel on an open highway safely at up to about 100 miles per hour (160 km/h); however, due to some concept oversights, the prototypes proved to be unruly over the speed of 50 mph... ...s friends with Boston artist Pietro Pezzati. He experimented with polyphasic sleep. A new allotrope of carbon (fullerene) and a particular molecule of that allotrope (buckminsterfullerene or buckyballs) have been named after him. On July 12, 2004 the United States Post Office released a new commemorative stamp honoring Buckminster Fuller on the 50th anniversary of his patent for the geodesic dome and on the occasion of his 109th birthday.  Neologisms World-around is a term coined by Fuller to replace worldwide. The general belief in a flat Earth died out in the Middle Ages, so using wide is an anachronism when referring to the surface of the Earth Ã¢â¬â a spheroidal surface has area and encloses a volume, but has no width. Fuller held that unthinking use of obsolete scientific ideas detracts from and misleads intuition. The terms sunsight and sunclipse are other neologisms, according to Allegra Fuller Snyder collectively coined by the Fuller family, replacing sunrise and sunset in order to overturn the geocentric bias of most pre-Copernican celestial mechanics. Fuller also coined the phrase Spaceship Earth, and coined the term (but did not invent) tensegrity.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
As our modern generation continues to build and discover new ways to make life easier, the USPS (United States Postal Service) is having trouble adjusting. They still go by traditional ways which is time consuming. People may no longer need their services because of the newly developed way called Ã¢â¬Å"emailingÃ¢â¬ . The internet has provided a faster and cheaper way to send messages. Regardless, the USPS is an essential and simply needs to update their postal service. The USPS has been delivering for over two centuries and has greatly expanded their service across the country. They provided job opportunities and a big success with the cross-country rail system. The USPS has made it this far, so they should keep providing services everywhere in the United States. The world may be changing, but we adapt to it. So can the USPS. There are many ways the USPS can meet the needs of the people. Source A (Stone) As listed and explained, people today prefer to email. So the USPS should get into the emailing trend so their services could run a lot better. They can increase their services, advertise with coupons, and reorganize/motivate staff. The USPS should rebrand their company or come up with a catchy slogan that reflects on their company that it is up to date and reliable. A new slogan can make a great difference today. Source C (OÃ¢â¬â¢Keefe) The USPS talks about a projection that will confirm change for the business. Customers are leaning towards the internet and other standard-mail options rather than USPSÃ¢â¬â¢s first-class mail. The USPS effort to gain what they had loss includes no Saturday deliveries, longer delivery times for letters and packages, higher-stamp prices and potential future layoffs. There will be flexibility and only changes that are necessary will be made. The article, Ã¢â¬Å"Sending, Getting Ã¢â¬ËRealÃ¢â¬â¢ Mail Still Magic.Ã¢â¬ , Source F (Cullen) Kevin Cullen talks about his opinions on the plummeting business of the USPS and how he prefers old-fashioned delivery. According to him, emailing is fast and simple, and fast and simple is what weÃ¢â¬â¢re all obsessed with. It gets things done faster and makes life easier. Regardless, Cullen reveals the value in receiving handwritten documents and letters, because people care less about Ã¢â¬Å"snailÃ¢â¬ mail. He mentions that it simply costs 44 cents to send a thank-you card from Danville to Sandybeach, Hawaii, or Alaska. A genuine bargain! Cullen explains that written documents, letters, and records would last much longer. Emailing is efficient, but electronic records wont last forever. They arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as valuable as a solid document, on real paper. The USPS has been going through difficult times since they had stopped making profit in 2006. Thanks to Cullen, there is hope t hat thereÃ¢â¬â¢s someone out there who believes in old-fashioned delivery. Although we encounter faster ways to deliver our letters and send messages, I personally believe in hand-written letters. They have value and effort put into them. The USPS may be facing difficult problems due to vast technology; but I believe they can make a comeback. There are many other people who probably have letters years ago, and canÃ¢â¬â¢t be taken away by a simple, Ã¢â¬Å"deleteÃ¢â¬ button. There are no faulty complications when it comes to documents. Anyways, the USPS can improve their business in many ways and increase their services.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The views of the latter three jurists are very complicated and need particular attention. It is also pertinent to note that no one has explored the views of leading judges and jurists in Pakistan to know which theory of adjudication they support. This work analyses some of the prominent decisions given by some of the notable Pakistani judges ? muhammadmunir@iiu. edu. pk. Dr. Muhammad Munir, PhD is Associate Professor and Chairman Department of Law at the Faculty of ShariÃ¢â¬Å¾ah & Law, International Islamic University, Islamabad and Visiting Professor at the University College of Islamabad. This view is shared by lawyers, law teachers, law students and judges alike. The prevailing opinion of all those persons who deal with law in one way or the other in the IndoÃ¢â¬âPak sub-continent or in the AngloÃ¢â¬âAmerican legal world is that a decision of a court of law, especially a court of last resort which explicitly or implicitly lays down a legal proposition, constitutes a source of law. The importance of precedent can be gauged merely by the fact that almost all authors from the above-mentioned regions treat precedent as a source of law. The above view may be undisputed in our own times but historically and jurisprudentially, it has always been disputed. Ascribing authoritative force to a precedent is to some extent grounded on the assumption that court decisions are a source of law and that judges are entitled to make law in much the same sense as the legislator. The role of the judge in the process of adjudication as a law maker is the subject of disagreement and debate. Many famous jurists, among them Bacon, Hale, and Blackstone, were convinced that the office of the judge was only to declare and interpret the law, but not to make it. 2
Sunday, September 15, 2019
History Romania euro On 1 January 2007, Romania joined the European Union and therefore, committed to the acceptance of the euro once it complies with all the needed conditions. At that peculiar clip, right before come ining the planetary fiscal crisis, the acceptance of the euro seemed to convey many alone advantages and was considered as the top precedence refering the hereafter options. However, this is non the instance any longer, as things have changed along the old ages. The first clip Romania announced its program to fall in the ERM was in May 2006, as a status for come ining the Euro Area after 2012. However, the day of the months for come ining the Eurozone were changed many times, as Romania kept proroguing it, as it did non pull off to follow with all the standards at one time. In December 2009, the Rumanian authorities officially changed the day of the month for fall ining the Eurozone to 1 January 2015, as the acceptance of the euro is the 2nd most of import aim of the National Bank, after the 2005 denomination of the Rumanian currency leu, which ended a period of more than 15 old ages of heavy rising prices. Despite this, two old ages subsequently, in April 2011, it announced it was doing all the attempts to carry through the first four standard, but that it will non be able to fall in the ERM by 2013 or 2014. Still, 2015 seemed like an unrealistic mark, as it was really hard for Romania to follow the euro by that clip ( Valentin Lazea ) , and this was confirmed by Mugur Isarescu, the governor of the National Bank of Romania, who stated, in November 2012, that Romania will non be prepared and will non fall in the Euro Area by 2015. Harmonizing to his statements, the hold was caused by work force productiveness, besides adverting by non being portion of the Euro Area, Romania was really advantaged during the period of European debt-crisis. Consequently, Romania did non stipulate a mark day of the month for following the euro in the Convergence Programme of 2013 to the European Commission, as it did non desire to come in the Euro Area unprepared. ( Victor Ponta ) Finally, in the Convergence Report of 2014, Romania indicated the 1 of January 2019 as the new functionary day of the month for euro acceptance. Indeed, 2015 was rather an impossible mark, holding in head all the reforms the state assumed, when following the Maastricht Treaty. Thinking about the positive side, Mugur Isarescu emphasized the advantages of maintaining the national currency ( NYT 2012 ) , stating that by non giving up the leu Ã¢â¬ËRomania obtained obtained a flexibleness in seting the involvement rates, in commanding cashflow and in leting rising prices in order to cut down the budget deficitÃ¢â¬â¢ . However, he besides stated that this brought Ã¢â¬Ëunhappiness and letdown, as fall ining the EU was seen as a solution to all problemsÃ¢â¬â¢ , underscoring the public sentiment which was in favour of following the euro. Furthermore, by maintaining the national currency, the exports from other EU member which have non yet adopted the euro were encouraged, doing it easier for the state to take less extremist steps for forestalling the fiscal crisis. On the other manus, even if Romania is non portion of the Euro Area, it depends in a great extent on the development of the euro. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic system, finance of loans and exports are straight related to everything go oning in the Eurozone. This shows one more clip the necessity of following the euro Talking of advantages, the one ensuing from following the alone currency must besides be taken into consideration. The riddance of rising prices and of the exchange rate, the decrease of the macro-economic hazards and of the involvement rates, the riddance of dealing costs and currency hazards, the integrating of the fiscal markets and the development of international trade alongside with the increasing grade of pulling higher investings are merely a few of them. ( The acceptance of the Euro by Romania Ioan Dan BRAÃ¢â¬Å¡TEAN ) However, the Erste Group Bank stated that the 2015 mark is really ambitious and that Romania would happen it difficult to carry through. This is non particularly because of the obstructions posed by the convergence standards, but instead because of existent convergence standards, as the state struggles to make several required degrees refering the existent convergence conditions, such as increasing the GDP per capita from 50 % to more than 60 % above the Euro Area mean degree Ã¢â¬â EGB ) . Furthermore, fall ining the Eurozone in 2019 require come ining the ERMII in 2017. Therefore, advancement demands to be made particularly refering this procedure. Therefore, at the present minute, Romania does non follow with all the convergence standards necessary for fall ining the Euro Area, but the state did nevertheless aligned itself to the demands and aims of following the alone currency and fall ining all the European Union establishments in the procedure. ( wiki ) Conformity with the standards in the period 2007-2011 As mentioned in the old chapter, the trial of nominal convergence consists chiefly of the grade of accomplishment of the Maastricht standards: monetary value stableness, sound public fundss, sustainable public fundss, exchange-rate stableness and convergence lastingness. Refering the first standard of monetary value stableness, Romanian failed to run into it in the period 2007-2013, as the one-year mean rising prices rate was higher than the standard required ( it exceeded 1.5 per centum points above the three best executing MS of the EU ) , as it can be seen in the tabular array above. The one-year rising prices increased from about 4 % in the first half of 2007 to 8,7 % by the 3rd month of 2008. ( CR 2008 ) The chief causes were an acute addition in monetary values of nutrient, a rise in monetary values of import ( as a effect of the depreciation of the national currency in 2007 ) alongside with another addition in the monetary values of trade goods. ( CR 2008 ) The highest values were, though, registered after the economic crisis between 2008 and 2011. In fact, of all time since come ining the EU, the Rumanian norm rising prices has been good above the mention value and it even increased during the old ages. In July 2008, it reached a three-year high point of 9.1 % , but it decreased up to 5.6 % in 2009, still being an hindrance on the manner of come ining the Eurozone. However during 2010 and 2011, the rising prices rate was expected to diminish well, due to the slow economic activity, making a degree of 4.3 % and 3 % severally. In malice of these prognosiss, rising prices in Romania remained rather high. ( CR 2010 ) Sing the standard on authorities budgetary place, in 2007, Romania recorded a 2.5 % of GDP as financial shortage, a value below the mention one of 3 % . As for the authorities debt ratio, it amounted merely 13 % in 2007 and 13,6 % in 2008, good below the mention value of 60 % . However, an increased financial consolidation was necessary, in order for the state to keep the shortage ratio far below the mention value and to carry through the aim on medium-term from the SGP, the same specified in the Convergence Programme Ã¢â¬Ëas a cyclically adjusted shortage cyberspace of impermanent measureas of around 0.9 % of GDP.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( CR 2008 ) Up until 2009, Romania was non capable to a determination of the EU Council refering the being of an inordinate shortage. However, since July 2009, the Council asked the state to rectify this shortage by 2012. The general authorities shortage reached 5.4 % of GDP in 2008 and increased even further to 8,3 % of GDP by 2009. In the undermentioned old ages, it decreased well, but still non run intoing the mention value. ( CR 2010 ) In what may concern the long-run involvement rates, these were on mean 7.1 % , both in 2007 and 2008, good above the mention value of the standard on involvement rates. This tendency was observed of all time since Romania joined the EU and it continued to remain the same in 2009 ( 9.4 % ) , 2010 ( 7.2 % ) and 2011 ( 7.3 % ) . ( CR 2008 and 2010 ) In footings of exchange-rate stableness, Romania has gone through a period of big fluctuations merely during a little period in 2009, when the exchange rate surpassed the +/-15 % allowed bound. In fact, the state received international fiscal aid, which led to the national currency stabilising during 2009 and at the beginning of 2010. The short-run involvement rates were narrowed, which reflected significantly in improved money market conditions overall. ( CR 2010 ) However, the state was non yet take parting in the ERMII, still runing on a floating exchange rate government. Conformity with the standards during recent old ages: 2012-2014 During recent old ages, Romania seems to hold improved slightly in what may concern some of the convergence standard. However, the state still struggles with high rising prices and it besides didnÃ¢â¬â¢t manage to go portion of the ERMII, one of the most of import conditions for fall ining the Eurozone. Of all the convergence standards, Romania finds it most hard to follow with the monetary value stableness one. In fact, it has ne'er managed to accomplish an rising prices rate lower than the three best executing EU MS, as the status requires it. In 2014, for illustration, the rising prices rate registered 2.1 % , while the maximal allowed was 1.7 % . Still, it is the best Ã¢â¬ËcomplianceÃ¢â¬â¢ up until now, being merely 0.4 % above the mention value. ( CR 2014 ) By looking at the recent informations, the one-year rising prices decreased well since making a high degree in September 2012 ( 5.4 % ) to merely 1.1 % in September 2013. However, in April 2014, it increased once more up to 1.6 % , due to a rise in the excise responsibilities on fuel. ( CR 2014 ) Indeed, rising prices fell well during the 2nd half of 2013, due to several grounds such as, decreases in nutrient monetary values ( good crop ) or a diminution in the VAT for flour and other bakeshop merchandises. As prognosiss, the major international establishments predict the mean one-year rising prices to lift in 2015 up to 3.3 % . There are nevertheless some hazards that must be taken into history, chiefly related to a strong addition in planetary trade good monetary values and farther deregulating of energy monetary values. Despite all these, it is hard to accurately foretell the consequence that the procedure of Ã¢â¬Ëcatching-upÃ¢â¬â¢ of Romania, connoting lower degrees of GDP per capita and of monetary values than in the Euro Area. ( CR 2014 ) When taking into consideration RomaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s authorities budgetary place during recent old ages, the first thing that should be mentioned is that presently, the state is non capable to a determination of the EU Council on the being of an inordinate shortage. In 2012, the state has so surpassed the mention value of 3 % , making 5.2 % , but in the undermentioned old ages, it has managed to remain within the bound ( 2013 Ã¢â¬â 2.9 % ; 2014 Ã¢â¬â 2.3 % ) . This consolidation was expenditure-driven, as the entire outgos relative to the GDP decreased by 1.7 per centum points, while entire grosss declined by 1 per centum point during 2013. ( EEF 2014 ) Taking into consideration the customary no policy alteration premise, the GDP shortage is expected to diminish even further in 2015, achieving a depression of 1.9 % . This would be go oning at the same tie with the betterment of grosss, a stronger domestic demand being the most of import driver of growing. Besides, Romania must do ce rtain that it makes adequate advancement towards making its medium-term aim, viz. a structural shortage of 1 % of GDP. ( CR EEF 2014 ) As for the authorities debt to GDP ratio, Romania has complied with the bounds during recent old ages, holding registered values good below the 60 % mention value. However, the value is expected to increase up to 40 % and to keep this degree during 2015. The primary dangers that can be assessed to the budgetary public presentations are related to the outgo control refering the revenue enhancement aggregation. ( EEF 2014 ) In footings of long term involvement rates, Romania has managed to register a 5.3 % value on norm in 2014, good below the 6.2 % mention value of the three best executing EU MS. In recent old ages, the long term involvement rates have fluctuated around 7 % ( 2013 Ã¢â¬â 7.25 % ; 2014 ; 6.36 % ) , as the rising prices kineticss tended to forestall the downward tendency in the nominal involvement rates. As in the last old ages, rising prices has declined well, this allowed the cardinal bank to decelerate down the policy rates. This in bend, resulted in a narrowing of differential in long-run involvement rate between the Euro Area norm and Romania. In respects to the exchange-rate stableness standard, the first thing that should be mentioned is that Romania did non pull off to fall in the ERMII, even though it traded under a government of flexible exchange rate, with a managed natation of the currency. Therefore, the exchange rate of the national currency leu against the euro has emphasized a high grade of volatility. In May 2013, the Rumanian leu somewhat appreciated, but instantly weakened, as the volatility increased during the half of 2013. Afterwards, the leu managed to acquire stronger once more, and it stabilized its degree around the 1 obtained at the beginning of 2013. As a long-run attack, April 2014 brought a close degree of the existent effectual exchange rate of the leu against the euro to the historical norms on 10 yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ clip. Furthermore, the current and the capital history of Romania had been adjusted during recent old ages, as challenges from the external environment.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
1: Could the alleged payment of bribes to Nigerian government officials by Jeffrey Tesler be considered Ã¢â¬Å"facilitating paymentsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"speed moneyÃ¢â¬ under the terms of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act? Answer: After this all came out in June 2004, Halliburton promptly fired Jack Stanley and severed its long-standing relationship with Jeffrey Tesler, asking its three partners in the Nigeria consortium to do the same. The United States Justice Department took things further, establishing a grand jury investigation to determine if Halliburton, through its KBR subsidiary, had been in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. In November 2004 the Justice Department widened its investigation to include payments in connection with the Nigeria fertilizer plant that Kellogg had been involved with during the 1980s under the leadership of Jack Stanley. In March 2005, the Justice Department also stated that it was looking at whether Jack Stanley had tried to coordinate bidding with rivals and fix prices on certain foreign construction projects. As of mid 2007, the U.S. investigation was still ongoing. 2: Irrespective of the legality of any payments that may have been made by Tesler, do you think it is was reasonable for KBR to hire him as anintermediary? Answer: TeslerÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the project might have remained unknown were it not for an unrelated event. Georges Krammer, an employee of the French company Technip, which along with KBR was a member of the consortium, was charged by the French government for embezzlement. When Technip refused to defend Krammer, he turned around and aired what he perceived to be TechnipÃ¢â¬â¢s dirty linen. This included the payments to Tesler to secure the Nigeria LNG contracts. 3. Given the known corruption of the Abacha government in Nigeria, should Kellogg and its successor, KBR, have had a policy in place to deal with bribery and corruption? What might that policy have looked like?Answer: It is not known whether a bribe was actually paid. What is known is that in December 1995, Nigeria awarded the $2 billion contract to the KBR consortium. The LNG plant soon became a success. Nigeria contracted to build a second plant in 1999, two more in 2002, and a sixth in July 2004. KBR rehired Jeffrey Tesler in 1999 and again in 2001 to help secure the new contracts, all of which it won. In total, Tesler was paid some $132.3 million from 1994 through to early 2004 by the KBR consortium. 4. Should Kellogg have walked away from the Nigerian LNG project once it became clear that the payment of bribes might be required to secure the contract? Answer: The KBR consortium was one of two to submit a bid on the initial contract, and its bid was the lower of the two. By early 1995 the KBR consortium was deep in final negotiations on the contract. It was at this point that NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s oil minister had a falling out with the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s military dictator, General Abacha, and was replaced by Dan Etete. Etete proved to be far less accommodating to the KBR consortium, and suddenly the entire deal looked to be in jeopardy. According to some observers, Dan Etete was a tough customer who immediately began to use his influence over the LNG project for personal gain. Whether this is true or not, what is known is that the KBR consortium quickly entered into a contract with the British lawyer, Jeffrey Tesler. The contract, signed by a Kellogg executive, called on Tesler to obta in government permits for the LGN project, maintain good relations with government officials, and provide advice on sales strategy. TeslerÃ¢â¬â¢s fee for these services was $60 million. 5. There is evidence that Jack Stanley, the former head of M.W. Kellogg and KBR, may have taken kickback payments from Tesler. At least one other former Kellogg employee, Wojciech Chodan, may have taken kickback payments. What does this tell you about the possible nature of the ethical climate at Kellogg and then KBR? Answer: This turn of events led French and Swiss officials to investigate TeslerÃ¢â¬â¢s Swiss bank accounts. They discovered that Tesler was Ã¢â¬Å"kicking backÃ¢â¬ some of the funds he received to executives in the consortium and subcon-tractors. One of the alleged kickbacks was a transfer of $5 million from TeslerÃ¢â¬â¢s account to that of Albert J. Ã¢â¬Å"JackÃ¢â¬ Stanley, who was head of M.W. Kellogg and then HalliburtonÃ¢â¬â¢s KBR unit. Tesler also transferred some $2.5 million into Swiss bank accounts held under a false name by the Nigerian oil minister, Dan Etete. Other payments included a $1 million transfer into an account controlled by Wojciech Cho dan, the former Kellogg executive whose extensive hand-written notes suggest the payment of a bribe to General Abacha and payment of $5 million to a German subcontractor on the LNG project in exchange for Ã¢â¬Å"information and advice.Ã¢â¬ 6. Should Halliburton be called into account if it is shown that its KBR unit used bribery to gain business in Nigeria? To what extent should a corporation and its officers be held accountable for ethically suspect activities by the managers in one of its subsidiaries, particularly given that many of those activities were initiated before the subsidiary was owned by Halliburton? Answer: In early 2005, however, Halliburton put KBR up for sale. The sale was seen as an attempt by Halliburton to distance itself from several scandals that had engulfed KBR. One of these concerned allegations that KBR had systematically overcharged the Pentagon for services it provided to the U.S. military in Iraq. Another scandal centered on the Nigerian LNG plants and involved KBR employees, several former officials of the Nigeria government, and a mysterious British lawyer called Jeffrey Tesler. The roots of the Nigerian scandal date back to 1994 when Kellogg and its consortium partners were trying to win an initial contract from the Nigerian government to build two LNG plants. The contract was valued at around $2 billion. Each of the four firms held a 25 percent stake in the consortium, and each had veto power over its decisions. Kellogg employees held many of the top positions at the consortium, and two of the other members, Technip of France and JGC of Japan, have claimed that Kellogg managed the consortium (the fourth member, ENI of Italy, has not made any statement regarding management).
Friday, September 13, 2019
VW's Resources - Assignment Example Based on the market research, VW should disseminate the information gathered to the research and development department so they can make the necessary adjustments in the automobile designs of VW. Since engineering is the core technical strength of VW, they should further enhance this strength by working hand in hand with the research and development team. Aside from the engineering strength of VW, another advantage of VW over the other automobile manufacturers is their heavy investment in plant and equipment. This, together with their gains in engineering can help overcome their weakness in terms of product development. Marketing and sales is considered an important capability in the car industry. One notices though that VW does not fare well in this area. The first step that VW should do is to redefine its target market. One probable reason why they do not perform as well as their competitors in this aspect may be because the strategies that they are employing are not appropriate to their target market. If VW will be able to specifically identify its target market, it will know how its characteristics and needs. The proper marketing and sales strategies will then be designed to answer to their target marketÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. VW must look into the possibility of enlarging its auto dealerships nationwide and increasing their sales people. Increasing the sales people is not enough, they should also give them the right training to boost their sales. A review of VWÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing and sales pitch must be undertaken to determine its effectiveness. Another way to increase VWÃ¢â¬â¢s sales is to offer m ore incentives to their dealers and sales people whenever they reach their quota. Since VWÃ¢â¬â¢s strength is in the emerging markets, they should focus their attention in these markets. As of 2010, China is the largest market for the VW brand having a 33% market share worldwide (Soh, 2010). Given that VW has always had a weak North
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Global management strategy - Essay Example This research has applied global marketing theories and frameworks supported by a well-structured bibliography of various international marketing components relating to market entry into a new market. This paper finally gives its findings and recommendations on the proposed venture. It is never anyones wish to feel unwell and be forced to seek medication. Nevertheless, individuals find themselves visiting pharmacies on various occasions to get the needed medical assistance. The usual ailments experienced by people have a broad selection of drugs that can be acquired over-the-counter in numerous pharmacies in the city of Prague. That notwithstanding, in as much of Czech Republic, an individual cannot purchase drugs from any drugstore like is in the case in the United States. A pharmacist can only do the sale of drugs in Czech Republic, and people find themselves making long queues await their turn to be served by a pharmacist at the counter. Conversely, eye products that include spectacles, contact lenses, and eye drops cannot be found in pharmacies in the country unless an individual visits an optician with a prescription. Toiletries and other products made to improve hygiene are also unavailable in Czech Republic pharmacies but can be purchased in stores elsewhere. Pharmacies in Czech Republic normally have queues for those who have prescriptions and those individuals without. "Na rezept" indicates the queue for people with prescriptions and people without prescriptions are made to stand on the "bezrezeptu" lines. Language barriers are often major impediments for individuals who do not speak the native Czech dialects. Primarily three companies namely; Leevia, which would later change its name to Zentiva, Lachema and Galena, which was purchased by the United Pharmaceutical Establishment (SPOFA) during the late 1980, built
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Information Technology in Various Countries - Essay Example It has direct influence in the daily lives of the people. The collapse of the information technology will endanger the existence of the society. Implementation of technology has been in varied extent in different countries. The human development statistical table provides a whole view of the development made by the countries based on certain parameters. One such parameter involves the access to information system and communication technology. The parameter to information system comprises of certain element like number of mobile and fixed line telephone subscription, the total percentage of population covered by the mobile phone networks , the total percentage of the broadband subscriptions and the number of the users of the Internet (Ã¢â¬Å"Human development Statistical table, n. d). The statistical table of human development of the year 2010 reflects that countries ranked with higher human development index have a better percentage of the users of internet. Countries like Norway, Ne therlands and the United states which are ranked as 1, 7 and 4 respectively have higher number of users of the internet facility. Whereas the countries ranked lower according to the human development index signifies that their rate of computer usage is very low. In countries like Chile, Mexico and Romania this significant trend is noted. Among the three countries with low usage Mexico has only 22% of the users which is lowest among them. The total number of subscription in Mexico has been considerably very low with only 7 percent as accounted in the report. The overall standing of Chile, Mexico and Romania are 53, 64 and 50. (Ã¢â¬Å"Human development Statistical table, n. d) The above discussion shows that the adoption of technology has been a crucial indicator of the overall development of the society and it impacts significantly in the growth of the societies. Modern Technology polluting the world The use of gadgets has significantly increased over the last decade with the latest innovation in technology. Modern technology has gained colossal achievement and has become a part of the lifestyle of every people in the developed and the developing countries. The modern technology is been publicized and will continue to do so with aging of time. Apart from the positive benefits which technology has brought in this era it has also marked some negative impact on the societies. Advancement in technology has greatly affected some business industries severely and has even led to the shutting down of certain segments of the business. The overall advancement in technology has facilitated the communication system. Other than the conventional mobile phone, people have formed virtual groups and communities over the web space and interact with each other. This has seriously affected the communities which existed in real in different societies and has constantly threatened their existence. Modern technology has stopped the personal interaction between the people due to the o verall popularity of the social networking sites like facebook, twitter and orkut. Such modes have acted as a barrier to the age old traditional face to face communication. The overall impact of technology on the society has been alarming and has turned the people to be lazier and has desensitized the society. The lesser amount of personal interaction between the people has resulted in making them less affectionate towards the human society. The general interaction bet
Political Corruption in Africa - Dissertation Example TABLES AND FIGURES Table 1 - Features of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods 7 Table 2 - Most Corrupt Nations 20 Table 3 - Index of Economic Freedom 25 FIGURE Figure 1 - World's Most and Least Corrupt Nations 18 Abstract Political corruption is a malaise that has infected governments since the Roman Empire as power corrupts. The damage inflicted by corrupt officials reflects on the believability of government, and impacts the populace, with the degree of the foregoing dependent upon the extent of corruption ingrained in its leadership and institutions. This study shall examine corruption, focusing on Africa, to determine if there are ways in which to stem the increasing wave of malpractice that has and is gripping our moral fiber. Through an investigation of political corruption, this examination shall seek to uncover its variations, forms, used and abuses, equating the conditions that foster its use, and th mechanisms to stem corruption in government. 1.0 Introduction In equating the subject matter of this study, political corruption lies at the core of this examination. The subject, political corruption, as described by Harris (2003, p. 1)" is a multifaceted and mutable concept, defiant of precise or comprehensive definition". In delving into the context, Lasswell (1958, p. 6) starts off the process by defining "politics as the art of who gets what, when, and how". When one considers the definition of corruption as "The act of the process of corrupting The state of being corrupt" (Houghton... According to the research findings the bounds of political corruption skirt bribery, certain forms of patronage, conflict of interest, extortion, nepotism, graft, embezzlement, and cronyism for their individual and or collective illegitimate gain. The preceding can and does give rise to a broad number of actions that facilitates the preceding as represented by the encouragement and or turning a blind eye to drug trafficking as well as money laundering and human trafficking. As the paper stresses corruption in some countries and regions of the world is so rampant that it is an expected by product of interaction, that is sometimes referred to a Ã¢â¬ËkleptocracyÃ¢â¬â¢, which means, Ã¢â¬Ërule by thievesÃ¢â¬â¢. The foregoing has been delved into in order to provide the understanding of the wide range of ramifications that encompass political corruption as an examination. As such, the Aim of this study is to examine the issues of political corruption from an international comparative perspective, focusing on Africa a region where the preceding is rife. The foregoing multiple Objectives are closely intertwined. The argument of this study seeks to examine the existing measures that are in sub-Saharan Africa to combat political corruption, and the extent to which these are effective and or ineffective and why such measures seem unlikely to become utilised as a result of the fact that the instruments for combating political corruption do not have correspo nding governance systems that have the abilities and or capabilities to monitor as well as implement such provisions.